Excess sewage sludge produced in any municipal or industrial wastewater treatment plant becomes a serious problem due to its increasing amount. This increase is related to the improvement of treatment technologies, expansion of sewage systems and the development of new industrial plants. The implementation and development of new technologies related to the utilization of sewage sludge is currently based on treating it as a substrate....
This article presents the most popular methods of sewage sludge management and analytical techniques which could be a powerful tool in designing new sewage sludge management methods. Chemical analysis is also described as a vital point at the subsequent stages of technological processes control and sewage sludge quality assessment. It is also an instrument essential to maintaining control of processed sewage sludge introduced to...
Personal care products and cosmetics are used daily by many people, causing local exposure to certain chemical substances through the application directly inside the oral cavity, on the skin, lips, eyes, and mucosa. Eyeshadows are among the most commonly used types of cosmetics. According to scientifc reports, they may contain heavy metals, especially in non-original products. The exposure to said heavy metals may cause local skin...
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