Assessment of Wide-Sense Stationarity of an Underwater Acoustic Channel Based on a Pseudo-Random Binary Sequence Probe Signal - Publication - MOST Wiedzy


Assessment of Wide-Sense Stationarity of an Underwater Acoustic Channel Based on a Pseudo-Random Binary Sequence Probe Signal


The performances of Underwater Acoustic Communication (UAC) systems are strongly related to the specific propagation conditions of the underwater channel. Designing the physical layer of a reliable data transmission system requires a knowledge of channel characteristics in terms of the specific parameters of the stochastic model. The Wide-Sense Stationary Uncorrelated Scattering (WSSUS) assumption simplifies the stochastic description of the channel, and thus the estimation of its transmission parameters. However, shallow underwater channels may not meet the WSSUS assumption. This paper proposes a method for testing the Wide-Sense Stationary (WSS) part of the WSSUS feature of a UAC channel on the basis of the complex envelope of a received probe Pseudo-Random Binary Sequence (PRBS) signal. Two correlation coefficients are calculated that can be interpreted, together, as a measure that determines whether the channel is WSS or not. A similar wide-sense stationarity assessment can be performed on the basis of the Time-Varying Impulse Response (TVIR) of a UAC channel. However, the method proposed in this paper requires fewer computational operations in the receiver of a UAC system. PRBS signal transmission tests were conducted in the UAC channel simulator and in real conditions during an inland water experiment. The correlation coefficient values obtained using the method based on the envelope of a probe signal and the method of analysing the TVIR estimates are compared. The results are similar, and thus, it is possible to assess if the UAC channel can be modelled as a WSS stochastic process without the need for TVIR estimation.


  • 1


  • 0

    Web of Science

  • 2



artykuły w czasopismach
Published in:
Applied Sciences-Basel no. 10, pages 1 - 11,
ISSN: 2076-3417
Publication year:
Bibliographic description:
Kochańska I.: Assessment of Wide-Sense Stationarity of an Underwater Acoustic Channel Based on a Pseudo-Random Binary Sequence Probe Signal// Applied Sciences-Basel -Vol. 10,iss. 4 (2020), s.1-11
Digital Object Identifier (open in new tab) 10.3390/app10041221
Bibliography: test
  1. Grelowska, G.; Kozaczka, E.; Witos-Okrasińska, D. Vertical Temperature Stratification of the Gulf of Gdansk Water. In Proceedings of the 2018 Joint Conference-Acoustics, Ustka, Poland, 11-14 September 2018; open in new tab
  2. pp. 80-85. [CrossRef] open in new tab
  3. Grelowska, G. Study of Seasonal Acoustic Properties of Sea Water in Selected Waters of the Southern Baltic. Pol. Marit. Res. 2016, 23, 25-30. [CrossRef] open in new tab
  4. van Walree, P. Channel Sounding for Acoustic Communications: Techniques and Shallow-Water Examples;
  5. FFI-Rapport 2011/00007; Forsvarets forskningsinstitutt: Kjeller, Norway, 2011.
  6. Kochanska, I.; Schmidt, J.; Rudnicki, M. Underwater Acoustic Communications in Time-Varying Dispersive Channels. In Proceedings of the 2016 Federated Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems (FedCSIS), Gdańsk, Poland, 11-14 September 2016; pp. 467-474. open in new tab
  7. Nissen, I.; Kochanska, I. Stationary underwater channel experiment: Acoustic measurements and characteristics in the Bornholm area for model validations. Hydroacoustics 2016, 19, 285-296.
  8. Kochanska, I. Testing the wide-sense stationarity of bandpass signals for underwater acoustic communications. In Proceedings of the 2017 IEEE International Conference on INnovations in Intelligent SysTems and Applications (INISTA 2017), Gdynia, Poland, 3-5 July 2017; pp. 484-489. [CrossRef] open in new tab
  9. Schmidt, J.H. Using Fast Frequency Hopping Technique to Improve Reliability of Underwater Communication System. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 1172. [CrossRef] open in new tab
  10. Basu, P.; Rudoy, D.; Wolfe, P. A nonparametric test for stationarity based on local Fourier analysis. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, Taipei, Taiwan, 19-24 April 2009; pp. 3005-3009. [CrossRef] open in new tab
  11. Priestley, M.; Rao, T. A test for non-stationarity of time-series. J. R. Stat. Soc. Ser. B (Methodol.) 1969, 31, 140-149. [CrossRef] open in new tab
  12. Iqbal, N.; Luo, J.; Schneider, C.; Dupleich, D.A.; Müller, R. Investigating Validity of Wide-Sense Stationary Assumption in Millimeter Wave Radio Channels. IEEE Access 2019, 180073-180082. [CrossRef] open in new tab
  13. Tomasi, B.; Preisig, J.; Deane, G.B.; Zorzi, M. A study on the wide-sense stationarity of the underwater acoustic channel for non-coherent communication systems. In Proceedings of the 11th European Wireless Conference 2011-Sustainable Wireless Technologies (European Wireless), Vienna, Austria, 27-29 April 2011.
  14. Socheleau, F.; Laot, C.; Passerieux, J. Stochastic replay of non-wssus underwater acoustic communication channels recorded at sea. IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 2011, 59, 4838-4849. [CrossRef] open in new tab
  15. Isukapalli, Y.; Song, H.; Hodgkiss, W. Stochastic channel simulator based on local scattering functions. JASA Express Lett. 2011, 130, EL200-EL205. [CrossRef] [PubMed] open in new tab
  16. Kochanska, I.; Nissen, I.; Marszal, J. A method for testing the wide-sense stationary uncorrelated scattering assumption fulfillment for an underwater acoustic channel. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 2018, 143, EL116-EL120. [CrossRef] [PubMed] open in new tab
  17. Studanski, R.; Zak, A. Measurement of Hydroacoustic Channel Impulse Response. Appl. Mech. Mater. 2016, 817, 317-324. [CrossRef] open in new tab
  18. Bracewell, R. The Fourier Transform and Its Applications, 3rd ed.; McGraw-Hill Series in Electrical and Computer Engineering, Circuits and Systems; McGraw-Hill College: New York, NY, USA, 2002; pp. 32-58.
  19. Franks, L. Carrier and bit synchronization in data communiaction-A tutorial review. IEEE Trans. Commun. 1980, 28, 1107-1121. [CrossRef] open in new tab
  20. van Walree, P.; Socheleau, F.X.; Otnes, R.; Jenserud, T. The Watermark Benchmark for Underwater Acoustic Modulation Schemes. IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 2017, 42, 1007-1018. [CrossRef] open in new tab
  21. Sklar, B. Rayleigh fading channels in mobile digital communication systems. I. Characterization. IEEE Commun. Mag. 1997, 35, 90-100. [CrossRef] open in new tab
  22. Schmidt, J.H. The Development of an Underwater Telephone for Digital Communication Purposes. Hydroacoustics 2016, 19, 341-352.
  23. Schmidt, J.H.; Kochańska, I.; Schmidt, A.M. Measurement of Impulse Response of Shallow Water Communication Channel by Correlation Method. Hydroacoustics 2017, 20, 149-158.
  24. McKeown, M. FFT Implementation on the TMS320VC5505, TMS320C5505, and TMS320C5515 DSPs;
  25. Application Report; Texas Instruments: Dallas, TX, USA, 2010. c 2020 by the author. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( open in new tab
Verified by:
Gdańsk University of Technology

seen 54 times

Recommended for you

Meta Tags