Contamination of Arctic Lakes with Persistent Toxic PAH Substances in the NW Part of Wedel Jarlsberg Land (Bellsund, Svalbard) - Publication - MOST Wiedzy


Contamination of Arctic Lakes with Persistent Toxic PAH Substances in the NW Part of Wedel Jarlsberg Land (Bellsund, Svalbard)


The expansion of glacier‐free areas in polar regions favours the appearance of lakes in the non‐glaciated parts of glacier basins. This paper presents the differentiation of organic compound concentrations in fifty‐four Arctic lakes collected in four locations (Logne Valley, in the vicinity of the Scott, Renard and Antonia glaciers). We cover meteorological measurements, chemical analysis of sixteen dioxin‐like compounds (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)), formaldehyde (HCHO), sum parameters of phenolic compounds (Σphenols) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The most contaminated with PAH compounds were lakes exposed to the influence of the Greenland Sea (Logne Valley lakes) and to the prevailing winds (Scott and Renard lakes). Interpretation of the PAH compounds results allowed for identification of pyrogenic sources as the main sources of PAH compounds in the year 2012. The highest levels of HCHO and Σphenols were observed for the Scott lakes, while the highest DOC levels were noted in Antonia lakes.


  • 0


  • 0

    Web of Science

  • 0


Authors (4)


artykuły w czasopismach
Published in:
Water no. 12, pages 1 - 15,
ISSN: 2073-4441
Publication year:
Bibliographic description:
Lehmann-Konera S., Marek R., Franczak ł., Polkowska Ż.: Contamination of Arctic Lakes with Persistent Toxic PAH Substances in the NW Part of Wedel Jarlsberg Land (Bellsund, Svalbard)// Water -Vol. 12,iss. 2 (2020), s.1-15
Digital Object Identifier (open in new tab) 10.3390/w12020411
Bibliography: test
  1. Marsz, A.A.; Styszyńska, A. Climate of the Area of the Polish Polar Station in Hornsund-Condition, Changes and Their Causes; Publ. Maritime University of Gdynia: Gdynia, Poland, 2007; p. 376.
  2. Ruman, M.; Kozak, K.; Lehmann, S.; Kozioł, K.; Polkowska, Ż. Pollutants present in different components of the Svalbard archipelago environment/Zanieczyszczenia obecne w różnych komponentach środowiska archipelagu Svalbard. Ecol. Chem. Eng. S 2012, 19, 571-584. open in new tab
  3. AMAP. AMAP Assessment 2016: Chemicals of Emerging Arctic Concern. Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP); open in new tab
  4. AMAP: Oslo, Norway, 2017; p. xvi+353. open in new tab
  5. Kozak, K.; Ruman, M.; Kosek, K.; Karasiński, G.; Stachnik, Ł.; Polkowska, Ż. Impact of Volcanic Eruptions on the Occurrence of PAHs Compounds in the Aquatic Ecosystem of the Southern Part of West Spitsbergen (Hornsund Fjord, Svalbard). Water 2017, 9, 42. open in new tab
  6. Kozak, K.; Polkowska, Ż.; Ruman, M.; Kozioł, K.; Namieśnika, J. Analytical studies on the environmental state of the Svalbard Archipelago-critical source of information about anthropogenic global impact. Trends Anal. Chem. 2013, 50, 107-126. open in new tab
  7. Lehmann-Konera, S.; Ruman, M.; Kozioł, K.; Gajek, G.; Polkowska, Ż. Glaciers as an Important Element of the World Glacier Monitoring Implemented in Svalbard. In Glaciers Evolution in a Changing World; IntechOpen: London, UK, 2017. open in new tab
  8. Overpeck, J. Arctic Environmental Change of the Last Four Centuries. Science 1997, 278, 1251-1256. open in new tab
  9. Amélineau, F.; Grémillet, D.; Harding, A.M.A.; Walkusz, W.; Choquet, R.; Fort, J. Arctic climate change and pollution impact little auk foraging and fitness across a decade. Sci. Rep. 2019, 9, 1014. open in new tab
  10. Vaughan, D.G.; Comiso, J.C.; Allison, I;, Carrasco, J.; Kaser, G.; Mote, P.; et al. Observations: Cryosphere. In Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of working group 1 to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change; open in new tab
  11. Stocker, T.F., Qin, D., Plattner, G.K., Tignor, M., Allen, S.K., Boschung, J., Eds.; Cambridge University Press (CUP): Cambridge, UK; New York, NY, USA, 2013; pp. 317-382.
  12. Oliva, M.; Gómez-Ortiz, A.; Salvador-Franch, F.; Salvà-Catarineu, M.; Palacios, D.; Tanarro, L.; Ramos, M.; Pereira, P.; Ruiz-Fernández, J. Inexistence of permafrost at the top of the Veleta peak (Sierra Nevada, Spain). Sci. Total Environ. 2016, 550, 484-494. open in new tab
  13. Rachlewicz, G.; Szpikowska, G.; Szpikowski, J.; Zwoliński, Z. Solute and particulate fluxes in catchments in Spitsbergen. In Source-to-Sink Fluxes in Undisturbed Cold Environments; Cambridge University Press (CUP): Cambridge, UK, 2016; pp. 133-143. open in new tab
  14. Douglas, M.S.V.; Smol, J.P. Freshwater Diatoms as Indicators of Environmental Change in the High Arctic. The Diatoms: Applications for the Environment and Earth Sciences; open in new tab
  15. Stoermer, E., Smol, J.P., Eds.; Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK, 1999; pp. 227-244.
  16. Rouse, W.R.; Douglas, M.S.V.; Hecky, R.E.; Hershey, A.E.; Kling, G.W.; Lesack, L.; Marsh, P.; McDonald, M.; Nicholson, B.J.; Roulet, N.T.; et al. Effects of climate change on the freshwaters of arctic and subarctic North America. Hydrol. Process. 1997, 11, 873-902. open in new tab
  17. Douglas, M.S.; Smol, J.P. Eutrophication and recovery in the high arctic: Meretta Lake (Cornwallis Island, Nunavut, Canada) revisited. Hydrobiologia 2000, 431, 193-204. open in new tab
  18. Dragon, K.; Marciniak, M. Chemical composition of groundwater and surface water in the Arctic environment (Petuniabukta region, central Spitsbergen). J. Hydrol. 2010, 386, 160-172. open in new tab
  19. Michelutti, N.; Douglas, M.S.; Lean, D.R.; Smol, J.P. Physical and chemical limnology of 34 ultra-oligotrophic lakes and ponds near Wynniatt Bay, Victoria Island, Arctic Canada. Hydrobiology 2002, 482, 1-13. open in new tab
  20. Michelutti, N.; Douglas, M.S.V.; Muir, D.C.G.; Wang, X.; Smol, J.P. Limnological Characteristics of 38 Lakes and Pondson Axel Heiberg Island, High Arctic Canada. Int. Rev. Hydrobiol. 2002, 87, 385-399. open in new tab
  21. Lim, D.S.; Douglas, M.S.; Smol, J.P. Limnology of 46 lakes and ponds on Banks Island, NWT, Canadian Arctic archipelago. Hydrobiologia 2005, 545, 11-32. open in new tab
  22. Lim, D.S.; Douglas, M.S.; Smol, J.P.; Lean, D.R. Physical and chemical limnological characteristics of 38 lakes and ponds on Bathurst Island, Nunavut, Canadian High Arctic. Int. Rev. Hydrobiol. 2001, 86, 1-22. open in new tab
  23. Rognerud, S.; Skotvold, T.; Fjeld, E.; Norton, S.A.; Hobaek, A. Concentrations of trace elements in recent and preindustrial sediments from Norwegian and Russian Arctic lakes. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 1998, 55, 1512-1523. open in new tab
  24. Duff, K.E.; Laing, T.E.; Smol, J.P.; Lean, D.R. Limnological characteristics of lakes located across arctic treeline in northern Russia. Hydrobiology1999, 391, 203-220. open in new tab
  25. Skotvold, T.; Savinov, V. Regional distribution of PCBs and presence of technical PCB mixtures in sediments from Norwegian and Russian Arctic Lakes. Sci. Total Environ. 2003, 306, 85-97. open in new tab
  26. Nowiński, K.; Wiśniewska-Wojtasik, B. Diversity of abiotic properties of water in shallow lakes in Hornsund area (SW Spitsbergen). Limnol. Rev. 2006, 6, 215-222.
  27. Lien, L.; Henriksen, A.; Traaen, T.S. Critical loads of acidity to surface waters: Svalbard. Sci. Total Environ. 1995, 160, 703-713. open in new tab
  28. Zwoliński, Z.; Mazurek, M.; Paluszkiewicz, R.; Rachlewicz, G. The matter fluxes in the geoecosystem of small tundra lakes, Petuniabukta coast, Billefjorden, Central Spitsbergen. Zeitschrift für Geomorphol. Suppl. Issues 2008, 52, 79-101. open in new tab
  29. Mazurek, M.; Paluszkiewicz, R.; Rachlewicz, G.; Zwolinski, Z. Variability of Water Chemistry in Tundra Lakes, Petuniabukta Coast, Central Spitsbergen, Svalbard. Sci. World J. 2012, 2012, 1-13. open in new tab
  30. Szumińska, D.; Szopińska, M.; Lehmann-Konera, S.; Franczak, Ł.; Kociuba, W.; Chmiel, S.; Kalinowski, P.; Polkowska, Ż. Water chemistry of tundra lakes in the periglacial zone of the Bellsund Fiord (Svalbard) in the summer of 2013. Sci. Total Environ. 2018, 624, 1669-1679. open in new tab
  31. Boyle, J.; Rose, N.; Appleby, P.; Birks, H. Recent Environmental Change and Human Impact on Svalbard: The Lake-Sediment Geochemical Record. J. Paleolimnol. 2004, 31, 515-530. open in new tab
  32. Jiao, L.; Zheng, G.J.; Minh, T.B.; Richardson, B.; Chen, L.; Zhang, Y.; Yeung, L.W.; Lam, J.C.; Yang, X.; Lam, P.K.; et al. Persistent toxic substances in remote lake and coastal sediments from Svalbard, Norwegian Arctic: Levels, sources and fluxes. Environ. Pollut. 2009, 157, 1342-1351. open in new tab
  33. Rose, N.; Rose, C.; Boyle, J.; Appleby, P. Lake-Sediment Evidence for Local and Remote Sources of Atmospherically Deposited Pollutants on Svalbard. J. Paleolimnol. 2004, 31, 499-513. open in new tab
  34. Birks, H.; Jones, V.J.; Rose, N. Recent Environmental Change and Atmospheric Contamination on Svalbard as Recorded in Lake Sediments-Synthesis and General Conclusions. J. Paleolimnol. 2004, 31, 531- 546. open in new tab
  35. Sapota, G.; Wojtasik, B.; Burska, D.; Nowiński, K. Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments from selected fjords, tidal plains and lakes of the North Spitsbergen. Pol. Polar Res. 2009, 30, 59-76.
  36. Polkowska, Ż.; Cichała-Kamrowska, K.; Ruman, M.; Kozioł, K.; Krawczyk, W.E.; Namieśnik, J. Organic Pollution in Surface Waters from the Fuglebekken Basin in Svalbard, Norwegian Arctic. Sensors 2011, 11, 8910-8929. open in new tab
  37. Kosek, K.; Kozak, K.; Kozioł, K.; Jankowska, K.; Chmiel, S.; Polkowska, Ż. The interaction between bacterial abundance and selected pollutants concentration levels in an arctic catchment (southwest Spitsbergen, Svalbard). Sci. Total. Environ. 2018, 622, 913-923. open in new tab
  38. Kosek, K.; Kozioł, K.; Luczkiewicz, A.; Jankowska, K.; Chmiel, S.; Polkowska, Ż. Environmental characteristics of a tundra river system in Svalbard. Part 2: Chemical stress factors. Sci. Total. Environ. 2019, 653, 1585-1596. open in new tab
  39. NPI, 2011 (Norsk Polar Institute). Available online: (accessed on 12 December 2019). open in new tab
  40. Rodzik, J.; Gajek, G.; Reder, J.; Zagórski, P. Glacial geomorphology. In The Geographical Environment of NW Part of Wedel Jarlsberg Land (Spitsbergen, Svalbard);
  41. Zagórski, P., Harasimiuk, M., Rodzik. J., Eds.; UMCS: Lublin, Poland, 2013; pp. 136-165.
  42. Franczak, Ł. Development and Functioning of Catchment-Lake Systems at the Forefield of the Scott and Renard Glaciers (NW Part of the Wedel Jarlsberg Land, Spitsbergen). Ph.D. thesis. Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Lublin, Poland, 291p.
  43. Franczak, Ł. Diversification of morphometric characteristics of catchment and lake systems in the foreland of the Scott glacier (NW Wedel Jarlsberg Land, Spitsbergen). In Proceedings of the "Polar Change-Global Change", 37th Polar Symposium in Poland, Poznań, Poland, 7-10 January 2018.
  44. Franczak, Ł.; Kociuba, W.; Gajek, G. Runoff Variability in the Scott River (SW Spitsbergen) in Summer Seasons 2012-2013 in Comparison with the Period 1986-2009. Quaest. Geogr. 2016, 35, 39-50. open in new tab
  45. Lehmann, S.; Gajek, G.; Chmiel, S.; Polkowska, Ż. Do morphometric parameters and geological conditions determine chemistry of glacier surface ice? Spatial distribution of contaminants present in the surface ice of Spitsbergen glaciers (European Arctic). Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 2016, 23, 23385-23405. open in new tab
  46. Lehmann-Konera, S.; Franczak, Ł.; Kociuba, W.; Szumińska, D.; Chmiel, S.; Polkowska, Ż. Comparison of hydrochemistry and organic compound transport in two non-glaciated high Arctic catchments with a permafrost regime (Bellsund Fjord, Spitsbergen). Sci. Total. Environ. 2018, 613, 1037-1047. open in new tab
  47. Lehmann-Konera, S.; Kociuba, W.; Chmiel, S.; Franczak, Ł.; Polkowska, Ż. Concentrations and loads of DOC, phenols and aldehydes in a proglacial arctic river in relation to hydro-meteorological conditions. A case study from the southern margin of the Bellsund Fjord-SW Spitsbergen. Catena 2019, 174, 117-129. open in new tab
  48. Ravindra, K.; Wauters, Éric; Van Grieken, R. Variation in particulate PAHs levels and their relation with the transboundary movement of the air masses. Sci. Total. Environ. 2008, 396, 100-110. open in new tab
  49. Mahyar, S. Depositional History of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Reconstruction of Petroleum Pollution Record in Peninsular Malaysia. In Organic Pollutants Ten Years after the Stockholm Convention-Environmental and Analytical Update; Puzyn, T., Mostrag-Szlichtyng, A., Eds.; IN TECH: Rijeka, Croatia; pp. 135-162.
  50. Hallanger, I.G.; Ruus, A.; Warner, N.A.; Herzke, D.; Evenset, A.; Schøyen, M.; Gabrielsen, G.W.; Borgå, K. Differences between Arctic and Atlantic fjord systems on bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants in zooplankton from Svalbard. Sci. Total. Environ. 2011, 409, 2783-2795. open in new tab
  51. Macdonald, R.W.; Leonard, A.B.; Terry, F.B.; Miriam, L.D.; Dennis, J.G.; Ray, G.S., Strachan, W.M.J.; Li, Y.F.; Wania, F.; Alaee, M.; et al. Contaminants in the Canadian Arctic: 5 years of progress in understanding sources, occurrence and pathways. Sci. Total Environ. 2000, 254, 93-234. open in new tab
  52. Wild, S.R.; Jones, K.C. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in the United Kingdom environment: A preliminary source inventory and budget. Environ. Pollut. 1995, 88, 91-108. open in new tab
  53. Aamaas, B.; Bøggild, C.E.; Stordal, F.; Berntsen, T.; Holmen, K.; Strom, J. Elemental carbon deposition to Svalbard snow from Norwegian settlements and long-range transport. Tellus 2011, 63, 340-351. open in new tab
  54. Kozioł, K.; Ruman, M.; Kozak, K.; Polkowska, Ż. Release and Transport of Toxic, Mobile Organic Compounds (Formaldehyde and Phenols) on an Arctic Glacier. APCBEE Procedia 2014, 10, 16-20. open in new tab
  55. Lehmann, S.; Kociuba, W.; Franczak, Ł.; Gajek, G.; Łęczyński, L.; Kozak, K.; Szopińska. M.; Ruman, M.; Polkowska, Ż. Studies on the presence and spatial distribution of anthropogenic pollutants in the glacial basin of Scott Glacier in the face of climate change (Fiord Bellsund, Spitsbergen). In Proceedings of the AIP Conference, Athens, Greece, 4-7 April 2014; Volume 1618, pp. 301-304. open in new tab
  56. Ruman, M.; Szopińska, M.; Kozak, K.; Lehmann, S.; Polkowska, Ż. The research of the contamination levels present in samples of precipitation and surface waters collected from the catchment area Fuglebekken (Hornsund, Svalbard Archipelago). In Proceedings of the AIP Conference, Athens, Greece, 4-7 April 2014; Volume 1618, pp. 297-300. open in new tab
  57. Stibal, M.; Tranter, M.; Telling, J.; Benning, L.G. Speciation, phase association and potential bioavailability of phosphorus on a Svalbard glacier. Biogeochemistry 2008, 90, 1-13. open in new tab
  58. Tye, A.; Heaton, T. Chemical and isotopic characteristics of weathering and nitrogen release in non-glacial drainage waters on Arctic tundra. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 2007, 71, 4188-4205. open in new tab
Verified by:
Gdańsk University of Technology

seen 35 times

Recommended for you

Meta Tags