Which casein in sodium caseinate is most resistant to in vitro digestion? Eﬀect of emulsiﬁcation and enzymatic structuring
We investigated the resistance of individual constituent casein epitopes (αS1-, αS2-, β- and κ-CN) in food-grademilk protein sodium caseinate (NaCN) to simulated human gastro-duodenal digestion. The inﬂuence of NaCNadsorption to the surface of oil-in-water emulsion droplets and the eﬀect of crosslinking of the protein withenzyme transglutaminase (TG) on the proteolysis were studied by indirect ELISA. TG crosslinking renderedfragments...
The bile salt content of human bile impacts on simulated intestinal proteolysis of β-lactoglobulin
The gastrointestinal hydrolysis of food proteins has been portrayed in scientific literature to predominantly depend on the activity and specificity of proteolytic enzymes. Human bile has not been considered to facilitate proteolysis in the small intestine, but rather to assist in intestinal lipolysis. However, human bile can potentially influence proteins that are largely resistant to gastric digestion, and which are mainly hydrolysed...
Analysis of the Factors Affecting Static In Vitro Pepsinolysis of Food Proteins
In this meta-analysis, we collected 58 publications spanning the last seven decades that reported static in vitro protein gastric digestion results. A number of descriptors of the pepsinolysis process were extracted, including protein type; pepsin activity and concentration; protein concentration; pH; additives; protein form (e.g., ‘native’, ‘emulsion’, ‘gel’, etc.); molecular weight of the protein; treatment; temperature; and...
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