Over the past decade, deep eutectic solvents (DES) have been widely studied and applied in sample preparation techniques. Until recently, most of the synthesized DES were hydrophilic, which prevented their use in the extraction of aqueous samples. However, after 2015 studies on the synthesis and application of hydrophobic deep eutectic solvents (HDES) has rapidly expanded. Due to unique properties of HDES i.e. density, viscosity,...
Optimization of Saccharification Conditions of Lignocellulosic Biomass under Alkaline Pre-Treatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis
Pre-treatment is a significant step in the production of second-generation biofuels from waste lignocellulosic materials. Obtaining biofuels as a result of fermentation processes requires appropriate pre-treatment conditions ensuring the highest possible degree of saccharification of the feed material. An influence of the following process parameters were investigated for alkaline pre-treatment of Salix viminalis L.: catalyst concentration...
Extractive detoxification of feedstocks for the production of biofuels using new hydrophobic deep eutectic solvents – Experimental and theoretical studies
The paper presents a synthesis of novel hydrophobic deep eutectic solvents (DESs) composed of natural components, which were used for removal of furfural (FF) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) from lignocellulosic hydrolysates. The main physicochemical properties of DESs were determined, followed by explanation of the DES formation mechanism, using 1H NMR, 13C NMR and FT-IR analysis and density functional theory (DFT). The most...
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