To benefit the environment and society, EU legislation has introduced a ‘zero waste’ strategy, in which waste material should be converted to resources. Such legislation is supported by the solid waste hierarchy concept, which is a set of priorities in waste management. Under this concept, municipal solid waste plants (MSWPs) should be equipped with sorting and recycling facilities, composting/incineration units and landfill prisms...
The main objective of the study was to assess the potential of three systems (UV irradiation, ozonation, and micro/ultrafiltration) operated in a pilot scale in removal of antimicrobial-resistant fecal bacteria from secondary effluent of the local wastewater treatment plant (700,000 population equivalent). The effectiveness of the processes was analysed using the removal ratio of fecal indicators (Escherichia coli and Enterococcus...
Methods of Assessment of Metal Contamination in Bottom Sediments (Case Study: Straszyn Lake, Poland)
The concentrations of six metals (Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cr, and Cd) were investigated in bottom sediments of Straszyn Lake (North Poland). This study was designed to determine a total content of metals and to assess their mobility and bioavailability. The sequential extraction was used to fractionate metals into five fractions: exchangeable, bound to carbonates, bound to Fe–Mn oxides, bound to organic matter, and residual. The evaluation...
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