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Comparison and Optimization of Saccharification Conditions of Alkaline Pre-Treated Triticale Straw for Acid and Enzymatic Hydrolysis Followed by Ethanol Fermentation
This paper concerns the comparison of the efficiency of two-stage hydrolysis processes, i.e., alkaline pre-treatment and acid hydrolysis, as well as alkaline pre-treatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis, carried out in order to obtain reducing sugars from triticale straw. For each of the analyzed systems, the optimization of the processing conditions was carried out with respect to the glucose yield. For the alkaline pre-treatment,...
Experimental Investigation of the Thermal Performance of a Wickless Heat Pipe Operating with Different Fluids: Water, Ethanol, and SES36. Analysis of Influences of Instability Processes at Working Operation Parameters
In this study, the influences of different parameters on performance of a wickless heat pipe have been presented. Experiments have been carried out for an input power range from 50 W to 300 W, constant cooling water mass flow rate of 0.01 kg/s, and constant temperature at the inlet to condenser of 10 C. Three working fluids have been tested: water, ethanol, and SES36 (1,1,1,3,3-Pentafluorobutane) with different filling ratios (0.32,...
Optimization of Saccharification Conditions of Lignocellulosic Biomass under Alkaline Pre-Treatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis
Pre-treatment is a significant step in the production of second-generation biofuels from waste lignocellulosic materials. Obtaining biofuels as a result of fermentation processes requires appropriate pre-treatment conditions ensuring the highest possible degree of saccharification of the feed material. An influence of the following process parameters were investigated for alkaline pre-treatment of Salix viminalis L.: catalyst concentration...
The paper presents a novel approach toward the use of solar energy systems in public transportation. The concept of energy generation in PV systems for supplying a trolleybus transportation system is proposed for the city of Gdynia (Poland). The suggested way of energy production allows reducing the environmental harm impact of the municipal transportation system. Moreover, the proposed way of green energy use can be a more profitable...
This article presents measurements of electric power absorbed by a newly built facility for office and scientific research activities. These measurements highlighted the need for compensation of capacitive reactive power—not predicted by the designer—due to the vast use of LED lighting in the facility. The article also describes a reactive power compensation system, designed on the basis of the above-mentioned measurements, and...
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