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Prace opublikowane w tym czasopiśmie
Analysis of distance measurement errors in CW FM sonar with MLS code modulationPublikacja
Although used in the classic silent sonar, the CW FM sounding signal has a major flaw which is its inaccuracy in determining the distance to a target. The authors of the article have developed a concept of silent sonar using frequency modulation signals switched by pseudorandom codes, already discussed in their previous work. This article presents a detailed analysis of errors in CW FM sonar with pseudo-random sequence code modulation...
Inertial Sensors Applications in Underwater MeasurementsPublikacja
Over the past decades microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) researchers have demonstrated a number of microsensors for almost every possible sensing modality, including attitudes. Current MEMS inertial measurement units (IMU) come in many shapes, sizes, and costs — depending on the application, and performance required. MEMS sensors have proved and demonstrated performance exceeding those of their macroscale counterpart sensors. In...
Integrated acoustical-optical system for inventory of hydrotechnical objectsPublikacja
The knowledge of the location, shape and other characteristics of spatial objects in the coastal areas has a significant impact on the functioning of ports, shipyards, and other waterinfrastructure facilities, both offshore and inland. Therefore, measurements of the underwater part of the waterside zone are taken, which means the bottom of the water and other underwater objects (e.g. breakwaters, docks, etc.), and objects above...
Measurement of Impulse Response of Shallow Water Communication Channel by Correlation MethodPublikacja
Performances of underwater acoustic communication (UAC) systems are strongly related to specific propagation conditions of the underwater channel; conditions that can additionally change in time due to the movement of the acoustic system transmitter and receiver or to reflection by underwater objects of the transmitted signal. The time-varying impulse response is a comprehensive description of dynamically changing transmission...
MEMS Technology Evaluation for Submerged Vehicle NavigationPublikacja
Analysis of some vital aspects of inertial navigation using MEMS. The paper presents a few aspects of MEMS gyro errors, and their estimation process in the context of INS processing flow. These errors have a serious impact on overall inertial system performance. The results of undertaken researches in that area, and pointing out the main difficulties behind the INS when using a few top MEMS technologies, including sophisticated...
Multibeam data processing for 3D object shape reconstructionPublikacja
The technology of hydroacoustic scanning offers an efficient and widely-used source of geospatial information regarding underwater environments, providing measurement data which usually have the structure of irregular groups of points known as point clouds. Since this data model has known disadvantages, a different form of representation based on representing surfaces with simple geometric structures, such as edges and facets,...
Multidimensional GIS for satellite imagery analysisPublikacja
Multidimensional Geographical Information System allows storing, querying and processing of multidimensional query data. It is able to process satellite imagery and provide tools for its analysis. In the article authors present the developed system that analyzes a time series of SENTINEL - 1 mission satellite imagery acquired over the coast of Poland. The algorithm used finds and detects changes in the shape...
On Algorithm Details in Multibeam Seafloor ClassificationPublikacja
Remote sensing of the seafloor constitutes an important topic in exploration, management, protection and other investigations of the marine environment. In the paper, a combined approach to seafloor characterisation is presented. It relies on calculation of several descriptors related to seabed type using three different types of multibeam sonar data obtained during seafloor sensing, viz.: 1) the grey-level sonar images (echograms)...
Sonar Pulse Detection Using Chirp Rate Estimation and CFAR AlgorithmsPublikacja
This paper presents a new approach to sonar pulse detection. The method uses chirp rate estimators and algorithms for the adaptive threshold, commonly used in radiolocation. The proposed approach allows detection of pulses of unknown parameters, which may be used in passive hydrolocation or jamming detection in underwater communication. Such an analysis is possible thanks to a new kind of imaging, which presents signal energy in...
The accuracy of a new approach to order determination for the Modified Prony method in swath mapping applicationPublikacja
This article presents the performance of a new approach to determine the model order for the modified Prony method applied to swath acoustic mapping. Key requirements for any mapping application are depth determination accuracy and angular resolution. Depth determination accuracy is strictly related to angular accuracy and geometrical relations between receiver and sources of the backscattered signal. Angular resolution determines...
Theoretical analysis of a new approach to order determination for a modified Prony method in swath mapping applicationPublikacja
This article presents a new approach to determine the model order (number of principal components) in the modified Prony method applied to swath acoustic mapping. Determination of the number of principal components is a crucial step in the modified Prony method. In the proposed approach the model order is chosen based on the underlying physical model of the underwater acoustic environment, and utilised signal processing operations....
Analysis of hydrodynamic pressure fields of motorboats and pontoons in shallow waterPublikacja
The article presents the results of calculations of the pressure fields generated by a motorboat at the bottom of a shallow sea. Calculations were made using the boundary elements method (BEM), arranged on the surface of the boat and the bottom of the sea. This method is described in , and applied on a free surface linearized boundary condition. Results for four different lengths of motorboats, from 2.85 m to 9.5 m, sea depth...
Calibration of precipitation estimation algorithm with particular emphasis on the Pomeranian region using high performance computingPublikacja
Fast and accurate precipitation estimation is an important element of remote atmosphere monitoring, as it allows, for example, to correct short-term weather forecasts and the prediction of several types of meteorological threats. The paper presents methodology for calibrating precipitation estimation algorithm based on MSG SEVIRI sensor data, and Optimal Cloud Analysis product available via EumetCast transmission. Calibration is...
Coastline change-detection method using remote sensing satellite observation dataPublikacja
Coastal zones are not only the fundaments for local economics based on trade, shipping and transport services, but also a source of food, energy and resources. Apart from offering diverse opportunities for recreation and tourism, coastal zones provide protection against storms and other meteorological disturbances. Environmental information is also essential because of the direct influence on a country’s maritime zones, which are...
Comparison between measured and calculated underwater pressure of merchant shipPublikacja
From 2012 The Polish Naval Academy take part in an international research project SIRAMIS, carried out in the framework of the European Defence Agency. The objective of this project is to improve the understanding of ship signature interaction with multi influence sensors in relevant and realistic scenario's. This paper describes selected results of the comparison results of sea trials and model calculations of the hydrodynamic...
Comparison of direct and inverse methods of satellite observations downscaling for the coastal zone areaPublikacja
The Earth observation satellite imaging systems have known limitations, especially regarding their spatial and temporal resolution. Therefore, approaches which aim to combine data retrieved from sensors of higher temporal and lower spatial resolution with the data characterized by lower temporal but higher spatial resolution are of high interest. This allows for joint utilization of the advantages of both these types of sensors....
Continuous wave sonar with hyperbolic frequency modulation keyed by pseudo-random sequencePublikacja
A CW FM type sounding signal is used in the classical solution of silent sonar. While the signal provides a relatively simple implementation of digital signal processing, and ensures good detection conditions, unfortunately, in the presence of the Doppler effect, distance measurement results tend to be wrong. This is due to the fact that the received signal’s instantaneous frequency value is dependent both on the distance to the...
Digital microcontroller for sonar waveform generatorPublikacja
Generating sounding signals is essential for the operation of active sonar. The system should be highly reliable. This can be achieved through architecture, communication between the devices, and a well-designed and self–testing software. The system presented in the article is responsible for the generation of hydroacoustic sounding signals, and ensures proper interaction between power amplifiers and power supplies. Thanks to its...
EGNOS-based GNSS receiver for precise positioning in restricted areasPublikacja
Positioning accuracy is very important in many areas, whereas the typical GPS receiver accuracy is often not sufficient. The European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS), Europe’s first venture into satellite navigation, improves the open public service offered by the Global Positioning System (GPS). As a satellite navigation augmentation system, EGNOS improves the accuracy of GPS by providing a positioning accuracy...
EGNOS-based receiver for precise positionint in restricted areasPublikacja
Positioning accuracy is very important in many areas. EGNOS improves accuracy, but
High-precision bearing estimation for active sonar with cylindrical array performed by interpolated array transformationPublikacja
The article presents a method for improving the accuracy of bearing in multibeam sonar with a cylindrical array. The antenna’s non-linear shape and the resulting non-uniform sampling of the signal in space, mean that known methods of high-resolution spectral analysis cannot be used. In order to apply an algorithm from this group, a linear virtual antenna must be produced. The paper presents a technique of mapping a cylindrical...
Investigation of the vertical distribution of the sound speed of the Gulf of Gdansk in the years 2000-2010Publikacja
The conditions of the acoustic wave propagation in the southern Baltic are much more complex than in other shallow waters. In the typical shallow water, seasonal changes in acoustical conditions in the upper layer, of the depth of about 60-70 m, are observed. They are caused by variation of the annual meteorological conditions. Most often, in the deep water layer, acoustical conditions are stable throughout the year. However, in...
Limitations of WSSUS modeling of stationary underwater acoustic communication channelPublikacja
Performances of underwater acoustic communication (UAC) systems are strongly related to specific propagation conditions of the underwater channel. Due to their large variability, there is a need for adaptive matching of the UAC systems signaling to the transmission properties of the channel. This requires a knowledge of instantaneous channel characteristics, in terms of the specific parameters of stochastic models. The wide-sense...
Methods for quality improvement of multibeam and LiDAR point cloud data in the context of 3D surface reconstructionPublikacja
Point cloud dataset is the transitional data model used in several marine and land remote-sensing applications. During further steps of processing, the transformation of point cloud spatial data to more complex models containing higher order geometric structures like edges and facets may be possible, if an appropriate quality level of input data is provided. Point cloud datasets usually contain a considerable amount of undesirable...
Mobile inventory system for hydrotechnical objects using data from multiple sensors operating simultaneouslyPublikacja
The knowledge of the location, shape and other characteristics of spatial objects in the coastal areas has a significant impact on the functioning of ports, shipyards, and other water-infrastructure facilities, both offshore and inland. Therefore, measurements are taken of the underwater part of the waterside zone, which means the bottom of water and other underwater objects (e.g. breakwaters, docks, etc.), and objects above the...
Modelling of acoustic backscattering by southern Baltic herringPublikacja
Assessment of Baltic herring abundance can be carried out using acoustic techniques. Analysis of the relationship between the Baltic herring individual target strength, TS, and the total fish length, L, important for the acoustic assessment, showed the relationship to be dependent on the location of the study area. This finding motivated a detailed analysis of the relationship for the herring occurring in the southern Baltic...
Optimizing of targets detection and tracking processes realized on consoles of passive sonar with linear towed antennaPublikacja
The long-range passive towed sonar was first modernised a few years ago. Building on operator experience over that period, a concept was developed of optimising the tasks performed by sonar operators, and improving forms of imaging to inform about object detection and support object tracking. The concept was implemented and successfully tested during ships’ manoeuvres. The optimisation of operator tasks was designed to keep listening...
Potential of Polish R&D industry in the context of prototyping, design, development and control of a dedicated national satellite SAR system for marine ecosystem monitoring. Technical paper - preliminary studyPublikacja
pace technology is currently one of the most important elements in the advance of information societies and knowledge-based economies all over the world. The European Space Agency (ESA) is in the focal point of European space activities, while the European Union provides strong financial support for the development of space technologies and applications in its flagship programs. In a domestic scope, the Polish Space Agency (POLSA)...
Signal conditioning for examination of shallow-water acoustic noise correlation propertiesPublikacja
The article describes the process of signal conditioning for examination of acoustic noise correlation properties in shallow water. Knowledge of these properties is very important for the design processes of passive and active hydroacoustic systems. This paper focuses on the above issue from the point of view of passive sonar. In sonar systems, signal processing algorithms operate on both useful acoustic signals, and accompanying...
SOLAP GIS in maritime researchPublikacja
Multidimensional Geographical Information System is a system especially designed to acquire, distribute, analyze and visualize complicated spatio-temporal data. Modern Geographical Information System technology can provide easy-to-use, near real-time solutions to many problems from different areas of research. In the article, authors summarize recent works on Spatial Online Analytical Processing (SOLAP) and multidimensional Geographical...
Stationary underwater channel experiment: Acoustic measurements and characteristics in the Bornholm area for model validationsPublikacja
The underwater acoustical channel is time-variant, and even on small time scales there is often existing no ‘acoustical frozen ocean’. Popular is the use of WSSUS-channel transmission modeling (Wide-Sense Stationary Uncorrelated Scattering) for the stochastic description of bandpass signals in GSM mobile phones with moving participants; since this results in a halved number of model parameters. For underwater sound applications...
The development of an underwater telephone for digital communication purposesPublikacja
The underwater telephone HTL-10 has been designed to provide voice and data communication between helicopter and submarines using acoustic waves. It works in a half-duplex mode and uses analogue power-efficient modulation in the form of a single side-band, suppressed carrier, in a wide range of frequencies. It generates the transmitted signal, and processes the received signals. It is implemented with the use of digital signal...
Web-based 3D processing and dissemination of multibeam sonar dataPublikacja
The continuous detailed surveys of the various water bodies over time produce a large and ever-increasing volume and density of underwater sounding data. Three-dimensional data, such as those obtained by multibeam sonar systems, are quite complex to manage, and thus their growing numbers increase the pressure on development of new solutions dedicated to processing them. This paper presents a concept system for web-based dissemination...
ADAPTIVE IDENTIFICATION OF TIME-VARYING IMPULSE RESPONSE OF UNDERWATER ACOUSTIC COMMUNICATION CHANNELPublikacja
The transmission properties of underwater acoustic communication channel can change dynamically due to the movement of acoustic system transmitter and receiver or underwater objects reflecting transmitted signal. The time-varying impulse response measurement and estimation are necessary to match the physical layer of data transmission to instantaneous channel propagation conditions. Using the correlative measurement method, impulse...
Coastal zone monitoring using Sentinel-1 SAR polarymetry dataPublikacja
In recent years the role of the surveillance and security of Polish boundaries has significantly increased. Polish coastal zone monitoring requires various approaches using various technological means in order to ensure the protection of Polish boundaries. In this paper, the authors discuss and present alternatives to underwater surveillance methods of coastal area analysis and monitoring using data retrieved from the newly developed...
INVESTIGATION INTO INTERFEROMETRIC SONAR SYSTEM ACCURACYPublikacja
The results of the accuracy measurements of phase differencing bathymetric sonar (PDBS) system in shallow waters are presented in the article. The measurement results were compared with the theoretical calculations for sonar system accuracy and international standards for hydrographic surveys. The proposed formulas enable to assess a priori sonar system performance using system quality factor (SQF), which takes into account influence...
Receiver of Doppler multistatic system for moving target detection and trackingPublikacja
The article presents a method for solving major structural problems that occur in the receiver used in the multistatic Doppler system, aimed at determination of the trajectory and velocity of a moving target. In the system two transmitters emit acoustic continuous sinusoidal waves at different frequencies. The signals, scattered from a moving target are received by four hydrophones. Beside of the echoes, much larger signals coming...
Reconstruction Methods for 3D Underwater Objects Using Point Cloud DataPublikacja
Existing methods for visualizing underwater objects in three dimensions are usually based on displaying the imaged objects either as unorganised point sets or in the form of edges connecting the points in a trivial way. To allow the researcher to recognise more details and characteristic features of an investigated object, the visualization quality may be improved by transforming the unordered point clouds into higher order structures....
Submerged objects modeling and storing in a global reference context using multiresolution spline technique,Publikacja
Contemporary records from multibeam sonars or even elevations from 3D shuttle radar topography missions feature high resolution. On the other hand, bathymetric models of a different resolution from different sensors are available as well, beginning from very high resolution MBS records and low resolution records coming from regular scattered measurements. Approximating and eventually visualizing the high volume scattered 3D raster...
THE SYNCHROSQUEEZING METHOD IN BEARING ESTIMATION OF STATIONARY SIGNALS FOR PASSIVE SONAR WITH TOWED ARRAYPublikacja
In this paper, a novel method of bearing estimation in a passive sonar system with a towed array is introduced. The classical approach of bearing estimation based on the spatial spectrum  is extended by using the synchrosqeezing method that is a part of the reassignment method introduced by Kodera et al. . Using this method leads to a precise bearing estimation. The proposed method requires a relatively small amount of computation,...
Tracking of the broadband source of the underwater noise in the very shallow water conditionsPublikacja
The paper contains the result s, both theoretical and experimental , connected with the tracking of the underwater noise source as small ships, pontoon , diver and so on. The pro blem of security in the shallow water area is the challenge for underwater acousticians. In this paper there is take n into account the detection of the sources that move on the surface of the sea or underwater in shallow...
Usage of the Gstreamer framework for generation, analysis, processing and visualization of sonar signalPublikacja
In this paper a novel method of the bearing estimation in a passive sonar system with a towed array is introduced. The classical approach of the bearing estimation based on the spatial spectrum is extended by using the synchrosqeezing method that is a part of the reassignment method introduced by Kodera et al. The usage of this method leads to the precise bearing estimation. The proposed method requires a relatively small amount...
3D Imaging Of Underwater Objects Using Multi-Beam DataPublikacja
One of the main applications of multibeam sonars is high resolution bathymetry measurement, as well as detecting and imaging of underwater objects like shipwrecks. In order to obtain the visualisation quality good enough to allow the researcher to investigate an object in more detail, the approach relying on construction of three-dimensional model of an imaged object, e.g. consisting of nodes, edges and plane elements (facets)...
Chirp-rate estimation of FM signals in the time-frequency domainPublikacja
Novel dynamic representations of a complex signal in the time-frequency domain including: a channelized instantaneous complex frequency (CICF), a complex local group delay (CLGD) and a channelized instantaneous chirp-rate (CICR) are introduced. The proposed approach is based on the use of the gradient of the short-time Fourier transform complex phase. An interpretation of the newly-introduced distributions especially of the CICR...
INVESTIGATION OF BOTTOM SEDIMENT STRATIFICATIONPublikacja
The main goal of this paper is to find a method to assess remotely the type of sediments on the basis of the signal received using the parametric echosounder. The images of the sea bottom sediments taken by a parametric echosounder show the fine structure of the upper layer of the bottom sediments. The depth of penetration depends on the type of sediment, in fact on the attenuation of acoustic wave. In the paper the method of distinguishing...
RADIATION OF HIGH INTENSITY SOUND BY CIRCULAR DISC BY MEANS OF THE NUMERICAL METHODPublikacja
The main goal of this paper is to find sound pressure distribution radiated by the circular piezoelectric disc that vibrates with the finite amplitude. There has been presented the pressure distribution close to the radiating surface. Also it is shown the sound pressure distribution in the 3D form. The mathematic modeling was carried out on the base of the nonlinear acoustic equation with the proper boundary condition. The axial...
Reliable underwater communication system for shallow coastal watersPublikacja
This paper presents a reliable and robust low data rate spread spectrum approach which is implemented in the acoustic underwater communication system for shallow coastal waters. It shows operation assumptions of spread spectrum techniques based on the wellknown Shannon equation. It describes two methods of spread spectrum: frequency hopping spread spectrum and direct sequence spread spectrum; their block diagram and their characteristics...
The Doppler effect in a bistatic system for determining the position of moving targetsPublikacja
The article presents the theoretical analysis and the results of numerical calculations of the Doppler effect it occurs in a system designed to determine the position and speed of a moving target. The transmitter is the source of the signal and it emits a sinusoidal, acoustic and continuous wave. Signal reflected off a moving target is received by four hydrophones. Based on the signals, four Doppler shifts are determined and inserted...
The hydrodynamic pressure field of the ship Zodiak, measurements and calculationsPublikacja
The article presents the results of measurements of the slowly changing hydrodynamic pressure field HPF generated by the movement of the ship, Zodiak, in the Bay of Gdansk. The measurement results have been obtained in the framework of the program of the work in Siramis, under the auspices of the European Defence Administration of the EU, by the research team of the Naval Academy in Gdynia. The measurement results were compared with...
Ultrawideband transmission in physical channels: a broadband interference viewPublikacja
The superposition of multipath components (MPC) of an emitted wave, formed by reflections from limiting surfaces and obstacles in the propagation area, strongly affects communication signals. In the case of modern wideband systems, the effect should be seen as a broadband counterpart of classical interference which is the cause of fading in narrowband systems. This paper shows that in wideband communications, the time- and frequency-domain...
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