Molecular dynamics simulations reveal the balance of forces governing the formation of a guanine tetrad—a common structural unit of G-quadruplex DNA
G-quadruplexes (G4) are nucleic acid conformations of guanine-rich sequences, in which guanines are arranged in the square-planar G-tetrads, stacked on one another. G4 motifs form in vivo and are implicated in regulation of such processes as gene expression and chromosome maintenance. The structure and stability of various G4 topologies were determined experimentally; however, the driving forces for their formation are not fully...
Why do G-quadruplexes dimerize through the 5’-ends? Driving forces for G4 DNA dimerization examined in atomic detail
G-quadruplexes (G4) are secondary structures formed by guanine-rich nucleic acid sequences and shown to exist in living cells where they participate in regulation of gene expression and chromosome maintenance. G-quadruplexes with solvent-exposed guanine tetrads show the tendency to associate together through cofacial stacking, which may be important for packaging of G4-forming sequences and allows for the design of higher-order...
Effect of osmolytes on the thermal stability of proteins: replica exchange simulations of Trp-cage in urea and betaine solutions
Although osmolytes are known to modulate the folding equilibrium, the molecular mechanism of their effect on thermal denaturation of proteins is still poorly understood. Here, we simulated the thermal denaturation of a small model protein (Trp-cage) in the presence of denaturing (urea) and stabilizing (betaine) osmolytes, using the all-atom replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations. We found that urea destabilizes Trp-cage...
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