A mixture of cellulose production waste with municipal sewage as new material for an ecological management of wastes
Chemical contaminants present in cellulose production waste and municipal sewage sludge condition the necessity to treat these wastes before they are introduced into the environment. Environmental use of the these wastes appears to be justified owing to the content of organic substances as well as the considerable fertilising value. The aim of the study was to assess chemical composition and ecotoxicity of cellulose production waste and municipal sewage sludge in terms of their eco-friendly application. The assessment was done based on the established soil environment according to regulations in Poland. The research on the chemical composition of the wastes was conducted under laboratory conditions, determining the content of macroelements, microelements and heavy metals with respect to using these wastes in the environment. Phytotoxkit and Microtox tests were performed in order to determine the ecotoxicity of the wastes in the aspect of their environmental use. It was established that, compared to the cellulose production waste, the municipal sewage sludge used in the incubation experiment had a higher content of macroelements and microelements. The content of heavy metals in the waste did not exceed the permissible content that conditions their use in agriculture and reclamation. Based on the results of bioassays it was established that the cellulose production waste was toxic, whereas the combination of cellulose production waste and sewage sludge was found to be of low toxicity to test organisms. The applied wastes and their mixtures were ranked according to phytotoxicity in the following order: cellulose production waste> cellulose production waste +soil> cellulose production waste +sewage sludge. The research results indicate that waste mixtures qualify for environmental use. With respect to the variable chemical composition of cellulose production waste and municipal sewage sludge as well as their ecotoxicity, it was established that each batch intended for environmental use must be subjected to chemical analysis and ecotoxicological tests.
Jacek Antonkiewicz, Agnieszka Baran, Robert Pełka, Anna Wisła-Świder, Ewelina Nowak, Piotr Konieczka. (2019). A mixture of cellulose production waste with municipal sewage as new material for an ecological management of wastes, 169, 607-614. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2018.11.070
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