Antifungal Activity and Synergism with Azoles of Polish Propolis
The aim of our work was to check if one of the products of natural origin, namely honey 19 bee propolis may be an alternative or supplement to currently used antifungal agents. The activity 20 of 50 ethanolic extracts of propolis (EEPs), harvested in Polish apiaries, was tested on a group of 69 21 clinical isolates of C. albicans. Most of the EEPs showed satisfactory activity, with minimum 22 fungicidal concentrations (MFC) mainly in the range of 0.08-1.25% (v/v). Eradication of biofilm 23 from polystyrene microtitration plates in 50% (MBEC50) required concentrations in the range of 24 0.04% (v/v) to more than 1.25% (v/v). High activity was also observed in eradication of biofilm 25 formed by C. glabrata and C. krusei on the surfaces of PVC and silicone catheters. EEPs at 26 subinhibitory concentrations inhibited yeast-to-mycelia morphological transformation of C. albicans 27 in liquid medium and mycelial growth on solid medium. A synergistic effect was observed for the 28 action of EEPs in combination with fluconazole (FLU) and voriconazole (VOR) against C. albicans. 29 In the presence of EEP at concentration as low as 0.02%, the MICs of FLU and VOR were 256 to 32 30 times lower in comparison to those of the drug alone. Evidences for the fungal cell membrane as 31 the most probable target of EEPs are presented.
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