At the Limits of Criticality-Based Quantum Metrology: Apparent Super-Heisenberg Scaling Revisited
We address the question of whether the super-Heisenberg scaling for quantum estimation is indeed realizable. We unify the results of two approaches. In the first one, the original system is compared with its copy rotated by the parameter-dependent dynamics. If the parameter is coupled to the one-body part of the Hamiltonian, the precision of its estimation is known to scale at most as N−1 (Heisenberg scaling) in terms of the number of elementary subsystems used N. The second approach compares the overlap between the ground states of the parameter-dependent Hamiltonian in critical systems, often leading to an apparent super-Heisenberg scaling. However, we point out that if one takes into account the scaling of time needed to perform the necessary operations, i.e., ensuring adiabaticity of the evolution, the Heisenberg limit given by the rotation scenario is recovered. We illustrate the general theory on a ferromagnetic Heisenberg spin chain example and show that it exhibits such super-Heisenberg scaling of ground-state fidelity around the critical value of the parameter (magnetic field) governing the one-body part of the Hamiltonian. Even an elementary estimator represented by a single-site magnetization already outperforms the Heisenberg behavior providing the N−1.5 scaling. In this case, Fisher information sets the ultimate scaling as N−1.75, which can be saturated by measuring magnetization on all sites simultaneously. We discuss universal scaling predictions of the estimation precision offered by such observables, both at zero and finite temperatures, and support them with numerical simulations in the model. We provide an experimental proposal of realization of the considered model via mapping the system to ultracold bosons in a periodically shaken optical lattice. We explicitly derive that the Heisenberg limit is recovered when the time needed for preparation of quantum states involved is taken into account.
1Web of Science
Marek Rams, Piotr Sierant, Omyoti Dutta, Paweł Horodecki, Jakub Zakrzewski. (2018). At the Limits of Criticality-Based Quantum Metrology: Apparent Super-Heisenberg Scaling Revisited, 8(2), 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevx.8.021022
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