CE-MS and GC-MS as “Green” and Complementary Methods for the Analysis of Biogenic Amines in Wine
Two novel complementary analytical methods, namely an extraction-free capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry (CE-MS) and direct immersion-solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (DI-SPME-GC-MS), have been developed and successfully applied for the determination of biogenic amines (BAs) in wine and fruit wine. They have been rigorously compared to each other in terms of various analytical criteria, and in addition, their “greenness,” standing for general safety and eco-friendliness, has been assessed using three different tools. Both procedures established in this work allow to determine the major BAs that are important for human health and life. Due to a faster and easier sample preparation step, the CE-MS method seems to be more user-friendly for routine and laborious analyses. On the other hand, the LOD values noted for the GC-MS method were always lower than those for the CE-MS approach. The lowest LOD in GC-MS was 3.1 ng/mL, while in CE-MS 25 ng/mL. This may be beneficial when BAs are present in wine at low concentration. The recovery values obtained for the CE-MS and GC-MS methods were similar and ranged from 65 to 117% and 64 to 106%, respectively. The greenness profile of these methodologies has been assessed and compared to each other using the following tools: National Environmental Methods Index (NEMI), greening profile algorithm, and analytical Eco-Scale. The evaluation based on all three scales indicates that both methods proposed in this works meet the requirements of a “green analytical chemistry” and can be safely used for the routine analysis of the studied BAs in wine samples with a minimal detrimental impact on human health and the environment.
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