Comparison of Two Methods for the Determination of Selected Pesticides in Honey and Honeybee Samples
Developed and validated analytical methods for the determination of a wide spectrum of pesticide residues in honey and honeybee samples after the modification of QuEChERS extraction in combination with gas chromatography–tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) and liquid chromatography–tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) were discussed and compared. The developed methods were evaluated regarding the utilized equipment and reagents using Eco-Scale and compared in terms of extraction time, accuracy, precision, sensitivity and versatility, with similar procedures. The results proved that the QuEChERS protocol in combination with LC and GC techniques fulfills the requirements of green analytical chemistry, so it can be used as a tool in environmental monitoring. The recovery was 85–116% for honey and 85.5–103.5% for honeybee samples. The developed methods were successfully applied in monitoring real samples collected from three districts of Pomerania in Poland. Analysis of real samples revealed the presence of the following pesticides: bifenthrin, fenpyroximate, methidathione, spinosad, thiamethoxam, triazophos, metconazole and cypermethrin at levels higher than the MRLs established by the EU.
Żaneta Bargańska, Piotr Konieczka, Jacek Namieśnik. (2018). Comparison of Two Methods for the Determination of Selected Pesticides in Honey and Honeybee Samples, 23(10), 2582-2595. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23102582
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