Cooperation of mono- and bi-articular muscles: human lower limb
Objectives: The aim of this study was to create and analyze a Pareto-optimal problem that would describe cooperation between mono- and bi-articulate lower limb muscles in sagittal plane. Methods: Equations describing the problem were derived and analyzed, additional constrains were introduced and experimental verification based on gait video analysis was performed. Results: Uncertainty of Pareto-optimal solution is shown for the muscular-skeletal system. An explanation of this situation is presented and discussed. Moreover, this theoretical observation is compared with a lack of gait reproducibility. Small but noticeable differences in gait cycles are shown and explained. Conclusions: A muscular system redundancy is shown and explained by the meaning of Pareto problem. Theoretical considerations were confirmed through a gait analysis. This leads to the conclusion, that during muscle cooperation each movement cycle can be different from the previous one, however due to physiological restrictions only a narrow equivalence class of the possible solutions exists.
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