Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry for in situ determination of biogenic amines in meat: Estimation of meat's freshness
A dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) technique was developed for the determination of selected biogenic amines (BAs) in samples of poultry, pork and beef. Prior to the extraction process, an appropriate volume of sodium hydroxide solution was added to each of the portioned samples. Next, samples were homogenized, centrifuged and finally sonicated at an increased temperature. After another centrifugation, the supernatant was made up to 50 mL in a calibrated flask. Subsequently, 5 mL of supernatant was separately subjected to a derivatization and extraction procedure. A mixture of methanol (dispersive solvent; 210 μL), chloroform (extractive solvent; 300 μL), and isobutyl chloroformate (derivatizing reagent; 100 μL) was used in the extraction process together with an admixture of pyridine and HCl in order to eliminate the by-products. The application of the method enables fast derivatization and extraction of the BAs and a straightforward and rapid sample enrichment. It displayed good linearity, intra- and inter-day precision and good recoveries. The proposed methodology is characterized by low limits of detection and quantification (0.003–0.009 μg/g and 0.009–0.029 μg/g, respectively). The green character of the method was established based on the results of two tools, namely the Analytical Eco-Scale and GAPI. It was successfully used to analyse samples of poultry, porcine and bovine meat. Multivariate statistical data analysis was applied in order to evaluate the potential use of the determined BAs as spoilage markers of particular meat types.
Wojciech Wojnowski, Justyna Płotka-Wasylka, Jacek Namieśnik. (2019). Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry for in situ determination of biogenic amines in meat: Estimation of meat's freshness, 145, 130-138. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.microc.2018.10.034
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