Hyaluronan-Chondroitin Sulfate Anomalous Crosslinking Due to Temperature Changes
Glycosaminoglycans are a wide class of biopolymers showing great lubricating properties due to their structure and high afﬁnity to water. Two of them, hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate, play an important role in articular cartilage lubrication. In this work, we present results of the all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of both molecules placed in water-based solution. To mimic changes of the physiological conditions, especially temperature, of the synovial ﬂuid in joints under successive load (e.g., walking, jogging, jumping), simulations have been performed at different physiological temperatures in the range of 300 to 320 Kelvin (normal intra-articular temperature is305K).The stability of the biopolymeric network at equilibrium(isothermal and isobaric) conditions has been studied. To understand the process of physical crosslinking, the dynamics of intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds forming and breaking have been studied. The results show that following addition of chondroitin sulfate, hyaluronan creates more intermolecular hydrogen bonds than when in homogeneous solution. The presence of chondroitin in a hyaluronan network is beneﬁcialas it may increase its stability. Presented data show hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate as viscosity modiﬁers related to their crosslinking properties in different physicochemical conditions.
Tomasz Andrysiak, Piotr Bełdowski, Jacek Siódmiak, Piotr Weber, Damian Ledziński. (2018). Hyaluronan-Chondroitin Sulfate Anomalous Crosslinking Due to Temperature Changes, 10(5), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10050560
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