Impact of selected parameters of the fermentation process of wine and wine itself on the biogenic amines content: Evaluation by application of chemometric tools
The demand for safer foods has promoted more research into biogenic amines (BAs) over the past few years, however, there are still some questions that remain unanswered. Despite the fact that BAs are present in wine and can cause toxic effect to the body, a shared regulation limiting the amounts of BAs in wine is still lacking. A detailed understanding of their presence in wine is also important for the food trade sector. Therefore, the aim of this work was to determine the level of selected BAs in wine samples origin from Poland. Thereafter, the evaluation of correlation between concentration of BAs and selected parameters including pH, alcohol content and fermentation temperature by application of chemometric analysis was carried out. The BAs were determined by application of previously developed SPME-GC–MS methodology characterized by low detection limits ranged from 0.009 μg/L (tyramine) to 0.155 μg/L (histamine). Data obtained in this study show that none of the wine samples surpassed the toxic levels reported for BAs in the literature (the total BAs content was ranged from 7 to 2174 μg/L), therefore, these wines appear to be safe as regards the risk associated with the intake of potentially toxic BAs. Moreover, several correlations between occurrence, concentration of biogenic amines, important factors of winemaking process as well as physico-chemical parameters of wine were indicated. Even though information on BAs is currently not included in wine composition databases, information on their existence, distribution, concentration and knowledge of existing relationships between BAs and other wine parameters is crucial and may be useful for the food industry, health professionals and consumers.
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