Molecular basis and quantitative assessment of TRF1 and TRF2 protein interactions with TIN2 and Apollo peptides
Shelterin is a six-protein complex (TRF1, TRF2, POT1, RAP1, TIN2, and TPP1) that also functions in smaller subsets in regulation and protection of human telomeres. Two closely related proteins, TRF1 and TRF2, make high-affinity contact directly with double-stranded telomeric DNA and serve as a molecular platform. Protein TIN2 binds to TRF1 and TRF2 dimer-forming domains, whereas Apollo makes interaction only with TRF2. To elucidate the molecular basis of these interactions, we employed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of TRF1TRFH-TIN2TBM and TRF2TRFH-TIN2TBM/ApolloTBM complexes and of the isolated proteins. MD enabled a structural and dynamical comparison of protein–peptide complexes including H-bond interactions and interfacial residues that may regulate TRF protein binding to the given peptides, especially focusing on interactions described in crystallographic data. Residues with a selective function in both TRF1TRFH and TRF2TRFH and forming a stable hydrogen bond network with TIN2TBM or ApolloTBM peptides were traced. Our study revealed that TIN2TBM forms a well-defined binding mode with TRF1TRFH as compared to TRF2TRFH, and that the binding pocket of TIN2TBM is deeper for TRF2TRFH protein than ApolloTBM. The MD data provide a basis for the reinterpretation of mutational data obtained in crystallographic work for the TRF proteins. Together, the previously determined X-ray structure and our MD provide a detailed view of the TRF–peptide binding mode and the structure of TRF1/2 binding pockets. Particular TRF–peptide interactions are very specific for the formation of each protein–peptide complex, identifying TRF proteins as potential targets for the design of inhibitors/ drugs modulating telomere machinery for anticancer therapy.
Umesh Kalathiya, Monikaben Padariya, Maciej Bagiński. (2017). Molecular basis and quantitative assessment of TRF1 and TRF2 protein interactions with TIN2 and Apollo peptides. European Biophysics Journal With Biophysics Letters, 46(2), 171-187. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00249-016-1157-7
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LicencjaCopyright (European Biophysical Societies’ Association 2016)
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