The impact of training and neurotrophins on functional recovery after spinal cord transection: cellular and molecular mechanisms contributing to motor improvement - Publikacja - MOST Wiedzy

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The impact of training and neurotrophins on functional recovery after spinal cord transection: cellular and molecular mechanisms contributing to motor improvement

Abstrakt

Beneficial effects of locomotor training on the functional recovery after complete transection of the spinal cord indicate that in chronic spinal animals spontaneous recovery processes are enhanced and shaped by the training. The mechanisms of that use-dependent improvement are still not fully understood. This review tackles three aspects of this issue: (1) neurochemical attributes of functional improvement showing that concentrations of excitatory and inhibitory amino acids in the lumbar spinal segments, which were changed after transection, normalize after the training, or even raise beyond normal. As it does not translate to functional equilibrium between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission and may lead to hyperexcitability, the postsynaptic mechanisms which might be responsible for the hyperexcitability are discussed, including (i) dysfunction of K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter KCC2, which controls the strength and robustness of inhibition, and (ii) altered function of 5-HT2 receptors, which may be targeted to restore KCC2 activity and intrinsic inhibition; (2) morphological changes of lumbar motoneurons and their inputs related to functional improvement of spinal animals, pointing to use-dependent diminution/reversal of the atrophy of the dendritic tree of the hindlimb motoneurons and of their synaptic impoverishment, which in paraplegic animals differs depending on the degree of disuse of the muscles; (3) the role of neurotrophins in motor improvement of spinal animals showing, that increases in neurotrophins due to training or due to efficient viral vector-based transgene expression, that might be responsible for the enrichment of the dendritic tree, elongation of processes and influence neurotransmitter systems in the areas subjected to plastic modifications after injury, correlate with improvement of locomotor functions.

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Informacje szczegółowe

Kategoria:
Publikacja w czasopiśmie
Typ:
Publikacja w czasopiśmie
Opublikowano w:
ACTA NEUROBIOLOGIAE EXPERIMENTALIS nr 74, wydanie 2, strony 121 - 141,
ISSN: 0065-1400
Rok wydania:
2014
DOI:
Cyfrowy identyfikator dokumentu elektronicznego (otwiera się w nowej karcie) 10.1371/journal.pone.0197486
Weryfikacja:
Brak weryfikacji

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