The Influence of Calcium Glycerophosphate (GPCa) Modifier on Physicochemical, Mechanical, and Biological Performance of Polyurethanes Applicable as Biomaterials for Bone Tissue Scaffolds Fabrication
In this paper we describe the synthesis of poly(ester ether urethane)s (PEEURs) by using selected raw materials to reach a biocompatible polyurethane (PU) for biomedical applications. PEEURs were synthesized by using aliphatic 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI), poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), α,ω-dihydroxy(ethylene-butylene adipate) (Polios), 1,4-butanediol (BDO) as a chain extender and calcium glycerolphosphate salt (GPCa) as a modifier used to stimulate bone tissue regeneration. The obtained unmodified (PURs) and modified with GPCa (PURs-M) PEEURs were studied by various techniques. It was confirmed that urethane prepolymer reacts with GPCa modifier. Further analysis of the obtained PURs and PURs-M by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy revealed the chemical composition typical for PUs by the confirmed presence of urethane bonds. Moreover, the FTIR and Raman spectra indicated that GPCa was incorporated into the main PU chain at least at one-side. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of the PURs-M surface was in good agreement with the FTIR and Raman analysis due to the fact that inclusions were observed only at 20% of its surface, which were related to the non-reacted GPCa enclosed in the PUR matrix as filler. Further studies of hydrophilicity, mechanical properties, biocompatibility, short term-interactions, and calcification study lead to the final conclusion that the obtained PURs-M may by suitable candidate material for further scaffold fabrication. Scaffolds were prepared by the solvent casting/particulate leaching technique (SC/PL) combined with thermally-induced phase separation (TIPS). Such porous scaffolds had satisfactory pore sizes (36–100 μm) and porosity (77–82%) so as to be considered as suitable templates for bone tissue regeneration.
Justyna Kucińska-Lipka, Iga Gubańska, Marcin Kostrzewa, Damian Włodarczyk, Jakub Karczewski, Helena Janik. (2017). The Influence of Calcium Glycerophosphate (GPCa) Modifier on Physicochemical, Mechanical, and Biological Performance of Polyurethanes Applicable as Biomaterials for Bone Tissue Scaffolds Fabrication, 9(8), 1-21. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym9080329
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