Trace Elements in Aquatic Environments
A trace element is defined as a chemical element whose the average concentration is less than 100 ppm (mg/kg, mg/L – in the case of a water matrix). In aquatic environments the concentrations of trace elements are usually at the level of picomoles per liter and lower. This causes extreme analytical problems, especially in situations where low content is in the range of background levels. Taking into account the role of trace elements in the environment, there are toxic ones, physiological, and inert.
Piotr Konieczka, Bartłomiej Cieślik, Jacek Namieśnik. (2018). Trace Elements in Aquatic Environments, 143-160.
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