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DirectionofArrival Estimation Methods in Interferometric Echo Sounding
PublikacjaNowadays, there are two leading sea sounding technologies: the multibeam echo sounder and the multiphase echo sounder (also known as phasedierence side scan sonar or bathymetric side scan sonar). Both solutions have their advantages and disadvantages, and they can be perceived as complementary to each other. The article reviews the development of interferometric echo sounding array configurations and the various methods applied...

Simple 2D DirectionofArrival Estimation Using an ESPAR Antenna
PublikacjaIn this letter, it has been shown how an electronically steerable parasitic array radiator (ESPAR) antenna can be used for 2D directionofarrival (DoA) estimation employing received signal strength (RSS) values only. The proposed approach relies on changes in RSS values recorded at the antenna output port observed for different vertical and horizontal directions, while antenna’s main beam sweeps 360° area around the ESPAR antenna. Based...

DirectionofArrival Estimation Using an ESPAR Antenna with Simplified Beam Steering
PublikacjaIn this paper, it has been shown, how electronically steerable parasitic array radiator (ESPAR) antenna, in which beam steering is done in a simple way, can be used for directionof arrival (DoA) estimation of an unknown signal impinging the antenna. The concept is based on an ESPAR antenna having twelve parasitic elements, in which beam switching is realized by RF switches providing required loads to its parasitic elements. Numerical...

Detection and DirectionofArrival Estimation of Weak Spread Spectrum Signals Received with Antenna Array
PublikacjaThis paper presents a method for the joint detection and direction of arrival (DOA) estimation of low probability of detection (LPD) signals. The proposed approach is based on using the antenna array to receive spreadspectrum signals hidden below the noise floor. Array processing exploits the spatial correlation between phasedelayed copies of the signal and allows us to evaluate the parameter used to make the decision about the...

A system for DirectionOfArrival estimation in ISM 2.4 GHz frequency band based on ESPAR antenna and SDR technology
PublikacjaDetermination of the direction of the signal arrival (DOA) finds many applications in various areas of science and industry. Knowledge of DOA is used, among others to determine the position of a satellite with a low Earth orbit (LEO), localization of people and things as well as in research of wireless communication systems, for instance the determination of the number of...

Direction of Arrival Estimation Based on Received Signal Strength Using TwoRow Electronically Steerable Parasitic Array Radiator Antenna
PublikacjaIn this paper, we present a novel approach to directionofarrival (DoA) estimation using tworow electronically steerable parasitic array radiator (ESPAR) antenna which has 12 passive elements and allows for elevation and azimuth beam switching using a simple microcontroller, relying solely on received signal strength (RSS) values measured at the antenna output port. To this end, we thoroughly investigate all 18 available 3D antenna...

Cloudtoground lightning dipole moment from simultaneous observations by ELF receiver and combined direction finding and timeofarrival lightning detection system
Publikacja 
Usage of the Gstreamer framework for generation, analysis, processing and visualization of sonar signal
PublikacjaIn this paper a novel method of the bearing estimation in a passive sonar system with a towed array is introduced. The classical approach of the bearing estimation based on the spatial spectrum is extended by using the synchrosqeezing method that is a part of the reassignment method introduced by Kodera et al. The usage of this method leads to the precise bearing estimation. The proposed method requires a relatively small amount...

THE SYNCHROSQUEEZING METHOD IN BEARING ESTIMATION OF STATIONARY SIGNALS FOR PASSIVE SONAR WITH TOWED ARRAY
PublikacjaIn this paper, a novel method of bearing estimation in a passive sonar system with a towed array is introduced. The classical approach of bearing estimation based on the spatial spectrum [1] is extended by using the synchrosqeezing method that is a part of the reassignment method introduced by Kodera et al. [2]. Using this method leads to a precise bearing estimation. The proposed method requires a relatively small amount of computation,...

A Review of Antennas for Indoor Positioning Systems
PublikacjaThis paper provides a review of antennas applied for indoor positioning or localization systems. The desired requirements of thoseantennas when integrated in anchor nodes (reference nodes) are discussed, according to different localization techniques and theirperformance. The described antennas will be subdivided into the following sections according to the nature of measurements:received signal strength (RSS), time of flight (ToF),...

Verification of ESPAR Antennas Performance in the Simple and Calibration Free Localization System
PublikacjaThis paper presents the results of simulations and measurements of an indoor localization system that uses Electronically Steerable Parasitic Array Radiator (ESPAR) antennas with switched directional beam. Proposed antennas are dedicated for 2.4GHz ISM lowcost applications where determination of the incoming signal is required. The antennas performance is analyzed and verified with relation to positioning methods based on the...

Audiovisual surveillance system for application in bank operating room
PublikacjaAn audiovisual surveillance system able to detect, classify and to localize acoustic events in a bank operating room is presented. Algorithms for detection and classification of abnormal acoustic events, such as screams or gunshots are introduced. Two types of detectors are employed to detect impulsive sounds and vocal activity. A Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier is used to discern between the different classes of acoustic...

Processing of acoustical data in a multimodal bank operating room surveillance system
PublikacjaAn automatic surveillance system capable of detecting, classifying and localizing acoustic events in a bank operating room is presented. Algorithms for detection and classification of abnormal acoustic events, such as screams or gunshots are introduced. Two types of detectors are employed to detect impulsive sounds and vocal activity. A Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier is used to discern between the different classes of...

RSSBased DoA Estimation Using ESPAR Antenna for V2X Applications in 802.11p Frequency Band
PublikacjaIn this paper, we have proposed directionof arrival (DoA) estimation of incoming signals for V2X applications in 802. 11p frequency band, based on recording of received signal strength (RSS) at electronically steerable parasitic array radiator (ESPAR) antenna's output port. The motivation of the work was to prove that ESPAR antenna used to increase connectivity and security in V2X communication can be also used for DoA estimation....

Experimental evaluation of estimator mean square error curve for cognitive tracking radar
PublikacjaTo make decisions, cognitive radar must rely on predictions of its own performance. In the literature, these predictions are usually based on some form of Cram\'erRao lower bound. This approach is scientifically sound, but it also brings a possibility of the cognitive controller overestimating radar performance. It therefore makes sense to back theoretical predictions with careful experiments which will verify their applicability....

Calibration of acoustic vector sensor based on MEMS microphones for DOA estimation
PublikacjaA procedure of calibration of a custom 3D acoustic vector sensor (AVS) for the purpose of direction of arrival (DoA) estimation, is presented and validated in the paper. AVS devices working on a pp principle may be constructed from standard pressure sensors and a signal processing system. However, in order to ensure accurate DoA estimation, each sensor needs to be calibrated. The proposed algorithm divides the calibration process...

TwoRow ESPAR Antenna with Simple Elevation and Azimuth Beam Switching
PublikacjaIn this letter, we propose a tworow electronically steerable parasitic array radiator (ESPAR) antenna designed for direction of arrival (DoA) estimation in Internet of Things (IoT) applications relying on simple microcontrollers. The antenna is capable of elevation and azimuth beam switching using a simple microcontrolleroriented steering circuit and provides 18 directional radiation patterns, which can be grouped in 3 distinctive...

RSSBased DoA Estimation in 802.11p Frequency Band Using ESPAR Antenna and PPCCMCP Method
PublikacjaIn this paper, the concept of direction of arrival (DoA) estimation using electronically steerable parasitic array radiator (ESPAR) antenna designed to operate in IEEE 802.11p vehicular communication standard has been investigated with respect to different possible elevation angles of a radio frequency (RF) signal impinging the antenna. To this end, two different possible sets of the 3D antenna radiation patterns have been used...

RSSBased DoA Estimation for ESPAR Antennas Using Support Vector Machine
PublikacjaIn this letter, it is shown how directionofarrival (DoA) estimation for electronically steerable parasitic array radiator (ESPAR) antennas, which are designed to be integrated within wireless sensor network nodes, can be improved by applying support vector classification approach to received signal strength (RSS) values recorded at an antenna's output port. The proposed method relies on ESPAR antenna's radiation patterns measured...

Influence of ESPAR antenna radiation patterns shape on PPCCbased DoA estimation accuracy
PublikacjaIn the article, we show the influence of three different electronically steerable parasitic array radiator (ESPAR) antenna radiation patterns on the overall direction of arrival (DoA) estimation accuracy when powerpattern crosscorrelation (PPCC) algorithm, relying on received signal strength (RSS) values, is used for the estimation. The ESPAR antenna designs were obtained for three optimization goals, which resulted in different...

Bearing estimation using double frequency reassignment for a linear passive array
PublikacjaThe paper demonstrates the use of frequency reassignment for bearing estimation. For this task, signals derived from a linear equispaced passive array are used. The presented method makes use of Fourier transformation based spatial spectrum estimation. It is further developed through the application of twodimensional reassignment, which leads to obtaining highly concentrated energy distributions in the joint frequencyangle domain...

Accurate PPCCBased DoA Estimation Using Multiple Calibration Planes for WSN Nodes Equipped with ESPAR Antennas
PublikacjaIn this paper, we have introduced a new directionofarrival (DoA) estimation method, which relies on received signal strength (RSS) values measured at the output port of electronically steerable parasitic array radiator (ESPAR) antenna and uses the power pattern crosscorrelation (PPCC) estimator. In the method, we have successfully incorporated measurements of ESPAR antenna's radiation patterns performed at multiple calibration...

Multiple sound sources localization in free field using acoustic vector sensor
PublikacjaMethod and preliminary results of multiple sound sources localization in free field using the acoustic vector sensor were presented in this study. Direction of arrival (DOA) for considered source was determined based on sound intensity method supported by Fourier analysis. Obtained spectrum components for considered signal allowed to determine the DOA value for the particular frequency independently. The accuracy of the developed...

Multiple sound sources localization in real time using acoustic vector sensor
PublikacjaMethod and preliminary results of multiple sound sources localization in real time using the acoustic vector sensor were presented in this study. Direction of arrival (DOA) for considered source was determined based on sound intensity method supported by Fourier analysis. Obtained spectrum components for considered signal allowed to determine the DOA value for the particular frequency independently. The accuracy of the developed...

RSSbased DoA Estimation Using ESPAR Antennas and Interpolated Radiation Patterns
PublikacjaIn this letter, it is shown how an algorithm, which employs received signal strength (RSS) values in order to estimate directionofarrival (DoA) of impinging signals in wireless sensor network (WSN) nodes equipped with electronically steerable parasitic array radiator (ESPAR) antennas, can easily be improved by applying an interpolation algorithm to radiation patterns recorded in the calibration phase of the DoA estimation process....

RSSBased DoA Estimation Using ESPAR Antenna Radiation Patterns Spline Interpolation
PublikacjaIn this paper, it is shown how power pattern crosscorrelation (PPCC) algorithm, which relies on received signal strength (RSS) values recorded at electronically steerable parasitic array radiator (ESPAR) antenna output port, used for directionofarrival (DoA) estimation, can easily be improved by applying spline interpolation to radiation patterns recorded in the calibration phase of the DoA estimation process. The proposed method...

A novel calibration method for RSSbased DoA estimation using ESPAR antennas
PublikacjaIn this paper, we introduce a new calibration method that can successfully be used in direction of arrival (DoA) estimation using electronically steerable parasitic array radiator (ESPAR) antennas and employing powerpattern crosscorrelation (PPCC) algorithm, which relies on received signal strength (RSS) values recorded at the antenna output port. Instead of the commonly used twostep approach, during which ESPAR antenna calibration...

Improved RSSBased DoA Estimation Accuracy in LowProfile ESPAR Antenna Using SVM Approach
PublikacjaIn this paper, we have shown how the overall performance of directionofarrival (DoA) estimation using lowprofile electronically steerable parasitic array radiator (ESPAR) antenna, which has been proposed for Internet of Things (IoT) applications, can significantly be improved when support vector machine (SVM) approach is applied. Because the SVMbased DoA estimation method used herein relies solely on received signal strength...

Efficient RSSBased DoA Estimation for ESPAR Antennas Using Multiplane SDR Calibration Approach
PublikacjaIn this paper, we have introduced a new method to improve overall efficiency of directionofarrival (DoA) estimation scheme relying on received signal strength (RSS) values measured at the output port of electronically steerable parasitic array radiator (ESPAR) antenna. The proposed approach uses softwaredefined radio (SDR) setup and power pattern crosscorrelation (PPCC) estimator involving multiple calibration planes. By placing...

LowProfile ESPAR Antenna for RSSBased DoA Estimation in IoT Applications
PublikacjaIn this paper, we have introduced a lowprofile electronically steerable parasitic array radiator (ESPAR) antenna that can successfully be used to estimate the directionofarrival (DoA) of incoming signals in wireless sensor network (WSN) applications, in which the height of the complete antenna has to be low. The proposed antenna is over three times lower than highprofile ESPAR antenna designs currently available in the literature...

ESPAR AntennaBased WSN Node With DoA Estimation Capability
PublikacjaIn this paper, we present a lowcost energyefficient electronically steerable parasitic array radiator (ESPAR) antennabased wireless sensor network (WSN) node designed for IEEE 802.15.4 standard that is capable of performing direction of arrival (DoA) estimation in reallife outdoor environments. To this end, we propose the WSN node architecture, design and realization that utilizes NXP JN5168 radio frequency (RF) wireless transceiver...

Influence of ESPAR Antenna Radiation Patterns Shape on PPCCBased DoA Estimation Accuracy
PublikacjaIn the article, we show the influence of three different electronically steerable parasitic array radiator (ESPAR) antenna radiation patterns on the overall direction of arrival (DoA) estimation accuracy when powerpattern crosscorrelation (PPCC) algorithm, relying on received signal strength (RSS) values, is used for the estimation. The ESPAR antenna designs were obtained for three optimization...

Measurement of distance, velocity and angle of arrival using FMCWCW combined waveform
PublikacjaA procedure of tacking small flying object based on a general principle of FMCW and Doppler radar is presented. In order to increase measurement range, this technique uses active signal source on the moving object. For simultaneous measurements of distance, radial velocity and direction (AoA) as well as simplified synchronization a combined FMCWCW waveform is proposed. The presented measurement system was realized and verified...

Improved RSSBased DoA Estimation Accuracy in LowProfile ESPAR Antenna Using SVM Approach
PublikacjaIn this paper, we have shown how the overall performance of directionofarrival (DoA) estimation using lowprofile electronically steerable parasitic array radiator (ESPAR) antenna, which has been proposed for Internet of Things (IoT) applications, can significantly be improved when support vector machine (SVM) approach is applied. Because the SVMbased DoA estimation method used herein relies solely...

RSSBased DoA Estimation Using ESPAR Antenna for V2X Applications in 802.11p Frequency Band
PublikacjaIn this paper, we have proposed directionof arrival (DoA) estimation of incoming signals for V2X applications in 802. 11p frequency band, based on recording of received signal strength (RSS) at electronically steerable parasitic array radiator (ESPAR) antenna's output port. The motivation of the work was to prove that ESPAR antenna used to increase connectivity and security in V2X communication can...

DoA Estimation Using Reconfigurable Antennas in MillimiterWave Frequency 5G Systems
PublikacjaTo achieve low latency and high throughputs, future 5G systems will have to utilize complex antenna systems able to provide beamforming and directionofarrival (DoA) estimation capabilities. Most of the concepts available in the literature rely on analog or digital beamforming, which is well developed and can be used both at a base station and in a user terminal. However, in applications, in which...

On Radar DoA Estimation and Tilted Rotating Electronically Scanned Arrays
PublikacjaWe consider DoA estimation in a monopulse radar system employing a tilted rotating array. We investigate the case of nonzero steering angles, in which case the mapping between the target’s azimuth and elevation in the global coordinate system and their counterparts in the array local coordinate system becomes increasingly nonlinear and coupled. Since estimating the azimuth using coherently integrated signals might be difﬁcult because...