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Elementary analysis and energetic potential of the municipal sewage sludges from the Gdańsk and Kościerzyna WWTPs
PublikacjaThis paper aims to present municipal sewage sludge (MSS) elementary analysis and energetic potential based on measurement of heat of combustion (higher heating value HHV) and calculation of calorific values (lower heating value LHV). The analysis takes into the consideration water content in sewage sludge, at different utilization stages, in wastewater treatment plants in Gdańsk Wschód and Kościerzyna – Pomeranian Voivodeship....

The role of additives in improving the flammability and calorific value of leather shavings and the binding of chromium compounds in ash
PublikacjaLeather processing companies are struggling with the problem of increasing costs of postproduction waste disposal. Therefore, the issue of thermal waste disposal at the plant and the use of generated heat in the production process is becoming more and more popular. Leather waste on its own does not allow for autothermal combustion despite the sufficient higher heating value (HHV). Therefore the Authors proposed to improve the...

Pyrolysis of Pruning Residues from Various Types of Orchards and Pretreatment for Energetic Use of Biochar
PublikacjaThe routine pruning and cutting of fruit trees provides a considerable amount of biowaste each year. This lignocellulosic biomass, mainly in the form of branches, trunks, rootstocks, and leaves, is a potential highquality fuel, yet often is treated as waste. The results of a feasibility study on biochar production by pyrolysis of residues from orchard pruning were presented. Three types of biomass waste were selected as raw materials...

Synthesis, thermal, structural and electrical properties of vanadiumdoped lithiummanganeseborate glass and nanocomposites
PublikacjaA glassy sample with a nominal formula LiMn1−3x/2VxBO3 (where x = 0.05) was synthesised using the meltquenching method. Material was characterised by differential thermal analysis (DTA), Xray diffactometry (XRD) at room temperature and as a function of temperature (HTXRD), Xray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), impedance spectroscopy (IS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Dependences of glass transition and crystallisation...

Entrained Flow Plasma Gasification of Sewage Sludge–ProofofConcept and Fate of Inorganics
PublikacjaSewage sludge is a residue of wastewater processing that is biologically active and consists of water, organic matter, including dead and living pathogens, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and heavy metals, as well as organic and inorganic pollutants. Landfilling is on the decline, giving way to more environmentally friendly utilisation routes. This paper presents the results of a twostage gasification–vitrification system, using...

Comparative study of operation of condensing and traditional boilers equipped with the ORC module for electricity generation
PublikacjaCondensing technology applied to boilers is to make full use of thermal energy contained in the fuel. That means that additionaly the heat from condensation of exhaust gases can be used for the purposes of heating the domestic hot water and to cover the demand for central heating. The study analyzed the operation of the "traditional" boiler equipped with the ORC module as the similar arrangement but with the condensing boiler....

Natural ventilation performance of family building in cold climate during windless time
PublikacjaIn this paper, the field measurements results are presented on the stack ventilation effect. The paper presents the results of performance (air change rate ACH) natural ventilation for building with inlet gap measured for the transitional season (between heating and summer season). The measurements were performed during a windless time. The house was located in northern Poland, in a cold climate region. The measurement system...

Comparative study of operation of condensing and traditional boilers equipped with ORC module for electricity generation
PublikacjaThe study analyzed the operation of the "traditional" boiler equipped with the ORC module as the similar arrangement but with the condensing boiler. In the case of a conventional boiler there is noted a greater fuel consumption and the greater power generated than in the case of the unit with the condensing boiler. Postulated is the indicator in the form of a ratio of turbine power to the mass flow rate of fuel, which in turn gives...

The Course and the Effects of Agricultural Biomass Pyrolysis in the Production of HighCalorific Biochar
PublikacjaThe thermal pyrolysis of agriculture biomass has been studied in a fixedbed reactor, wherethe pyrolysis was conducted at a steady temperature of 800◦C. This work analyses the pyrolysisproducts of six agricultural wastes: pistachio husks, walnut husks, sunflower hulls, buckwheat husks,corncobs and coconut shells. The conducted research compared examples of large waste biomassstreams from different parts of the world as a potential...

Effect of microwave and convection heating on selected nutrients of human milk
PublikacjaThe aim of this study was to determine the influence of the microwave heating method (MWH) on selected determinants of the nutritional value of human milk (HM) and compare to the effect exerted by the standard convection heating (CH) method, including holder pasteurization (HoP). It was showed that using MWH under conditions assumed to ensure microbiological safety, changes in the level of the nutrients were not observed. In these...

Epoxy/Ionic LiquidModified Mica Nanocomposites: Network Formation–Network Degradation Correlation
PublikacjaWe synthesized pristine mica (Mica) and NoctadecylN’octadecyl imidazolium iodide (IM) modified mica (MicaIM), characterized it, and applied it at 0.1–5.0 wt.% loading to prepare epoxy nanocomposites. Dynamic differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was carried out for the analysis of the cure potential and kinetics of epoxy/Mica and epoxy/MicaIM curing reaction with amine curing agents at low loading of 0.1 wt.% to avoid particle...

PreTreatment of Furniture Waste for Smokeless Charcoal Production
PublikacjaThe aim of this study was to assess the possibility of using furniture waste for smokeless fuel production using the pyrolysis process. Four types of woodbased wastes were used in the pyrolysis process: pine sawdust (PS), chipboard (CB), mediumdensity fiberboard (MDF), and oriented strand board (OSB). Additionally, the slow and fast types of pyrolysis were compared, where the heating rates were 15 C/min and 100 C/min, respectively....

Modeling and optimization of chemicaltreated torrefaction of wheat straw to improve energy density by response surface methodology
PublikacjaToday, torrefaction is important technique for extending the potential of biomass for improvement of energy density. The independent variables investigated for torrefaction study were temperature, retention time, acid concentration, and particle size. The experiment was designed by central composite design (CCD) method using design expert (version 11). The three dependent variables were higher heating value (HHV), energy enhancement...

The effect of convective heating and microwave heating on antioxidant enzymes in pooled mature human milk
PublikacjaThe effects of convective and microwave heating at constant temperature (62.5, 66 and 70 °C) on the activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; glutathione peroxidase, GPx) in pooled mature human milk were compared. Activities of the enzymes were determined using spectrophotometric kits. Activity of GPx decreased significantly in the first stage of heating when milk samples were warmed to pasteurisation...

Energy Efficiency Analysis of Railway Turnout Heating With a Simplified Snow Model Using Classical and Contactless Heating Method
PublikacjaElectrical heating of railway turnouts is a considerable technical and economic challenge, hence the need to conduct research for optimisation of a railway turnouts heating system. This paper presents results of a numerical analysis and experimental research on heating systems mounted on rail turnouts in line with the classical method and including a heater thermally insulated from the base of a rail. The numerical calculations...

Effect of convection and microwave heating on the retention of bioactive components in human milk
PublikacjaBioactive substances are very important components of human milk (HM), especially for premature newborns. The effects of convection (CH) and microwave heating (MWH) at 62.5 and 66 °C, on the level of selected bioactive components of HM: lysozyme (LZ), lactoferrin (LF), secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), basal lipase (BL), cytokine TGF2, vitamin C and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was compared. Regardless of the used heating methods...

Acoustic heating produced in the boundary layer
Publikacja: Instantaneous acoustic heating of a viscous fluid flow in a boundary layer is the subject of investigation. The governing equation of acoustic heating is derived by means of a special linear combination of conservation equations in the differential form, which reduces all acoustic terms in the linear part of the final equation but preserves terms belonging to the thermal mode. The procedure of decomposition is valid in a weakly...

Efficiency of acoustic heating produced in the thermoviscous flow of a fluid with relaxation
PublikacjaInstantaneous acoustic heating of a fluid with thermodynamic relaxation is the subject of investigation. Among others, viscoelastic biological media described by the Maxwell model of the viscous stress tensor, belong to this type of fluid. The governing equation of acoustic heating is derived by means of the special linear combination of conservation equations in differential form, allowing the reduction of all acoustic terms in...

Acoustic heating produced in resonators filled by a newtonian fluid
PublikacjaAcoustic heating in resonators is studied. The governing equation of acoustic heating is derived by means of the special linear combination of conservation equations in differential form, allowing the reduction of all acoustic terms in the linear part of the final equation, but preserving terms belonging to the thermal mode responsible for heating. This equation is instantaneous and includes nonlinear acoustic terms that form a...

Efficiency of acoustic heating in the Maxwell fluid
PublikacjaThe nonlinear effects of sound in a fluid describing by the Maxwell model of the viscous stress tensor is the subject of investigation. Among other, viscoelastic biological media belong to this nonnewtonian type of fluids. Generation of heating of the medium caused by nonlinear transfer of acoustic energy, is discussed in details. The governing equation of acoustic heating is derived by means of the special linear combination...

Efficiency of acoustic heating in the Maxwell fluid
PublikacjaThe nonlinear effects of sound in a fluid describing by the Maxwell model of the viscous stress tensor is the subject of investigation. Among other, viscoelastic biological media belong to this nonnewtonian type of fluids. Generation of heating of the medium caused by nonlinear transfer of acoustic energy, is discussed in details. The governing equation of acoustic heating is derived by means of the special linear combination...

Smart heating system for home extending utilization of renewable energy sources
PublikacjaIn the paper a modern approach to smart home heating is presented. Proposed solution utilizes at least two lowpolluting energy source technologies. The main idea is to connect well known ecological energy sources in a way that they can support each other and minimize risks of failure when using single system or even both of them but managed in separate way. Considered energy technologies, used separatelly, have disadvantages,...

Prediction of metal deformation due to line heating; an alternative method of mechanical bending, based on artificial neural network approach
PublikacjaLine heating is one of the alternative methods of forming metals and this kind of forming uses the heating torch as a source of heat input. During the process, many parameters are considered like the size of the substrate, thickness, cooling method, source power intensity, the travel speed of the power source, the sequence of heating, and so on. It is important to analyze the factors affecting the...

Study of the influence of thermal factors on the welding process of polyethylene gas pipelines,
PublikacjaA onedimensional calculation scheme is proposed with the help of which it is possible to determine and set the technological parameters with the accuracy to be realized in production conditions: the temperature of the heating element and the heating time, which allows maximum mechanization of the technological operations of polyethylene gas pipelines welding. The numerical value of the coefficient of temperature for polyethylene...

Acoustic heating produced in the thermoviscous flow of a bingham plastic
PublikacjaThis study is devoted to the instantaneous acoustic heating of a Bingham plastic. The model of the Bingham plastic's viscous stress tensor includes the yield stress along with the shear viscosity, which differentiates a Bingham plastic from a viscous Newtonian fluid. A special linear combination of the conservation equations in differential form makes it possible to reduce all acoustic terms in the linear part of of the final equation...

Acoustic heating produced in the thermoviscous flow of a Bingham plastic
PublikacjaThis study is devoted to the instantaneous acoustic heating of a Bingham plastic. The model of the Bingham plastic's viscous stress tensor includes the yield stress along with the shear viscosity, which differentiates a Bingham plastic from a viscous Newtonian fluid. A special linear combination of the conservation equations in differential form makes it possible to reduce all acoustic terms in the linear part of of the final equation...

On the Nonlinear Effects of Magnetoacoustic Perturbations in a Perfectly Conducting Viscous and Thermoconducting Gas
PublikacjaNonlinear effects of planar and quasiplanar magnetosound perturbations are discussed. The plasma is as sumed to be a Newtonian thermoconducting gas with infinite electrical conductivity permeated by a magnetic field orthogonal to the trajectories of gas particles. Generation of the nonwave modes (magnetoacoustic heating and streaming) in the field of periodic and aperiodic magnetoacoustic perturbations is discussed. The results...

Comparison of traditional district heating with low temperature district heating systems featuring organic Rankine cycle and heat pump
PublikacjaPaper presents a comparison between a traditional district heating system with conventional boilers as a source of heat and electricity purchases from power utilities and a low temperature DH system incorporating the CHP with organic Rankine Cycle providing electricity and local heat pump raising the temperature of the DH fluid to the required temperature in the dwelling, meaning that both heat and electricity are produced within...

Standing Waves and Acoustic Heating (or Cooling) in Resonators Filled with Chemically Reacting Gas
PublikacjaStanding waves and acoustic heating in a onedimensional resonator filled with chemically reacting gas, is the subject of investigation. The chemical reaction of A ! B type, which takes place in a gas, may be reversible or not. Governing equations for the sound and entropy mode which is generated in the field of sound are derived by use of a special mathematical method. Under some conditions, sound waves propagating in opposite...

Magnetoacoustic Heating of Plasma Caused by Periodic MagnetosoundPerturbations with Discontinuities in a QuasiIsentropic Magnetic Gas
PublikacjaThe magnetoacoustic heating of plasma by harmonic or periodic sawtooth perturbations at a transducer is theoretically studied. The planar fast and slow magnetosound waves are considered. The wavevector may form an arbitrary angleθwith the equilibrium straight magnetic field. In view of variableθand plasmaβ, the description of magnetosound perturbations and appropriate magnetosound heatingis fairly difficult. The scenario of...

Efficiency of Biomass Energy used for Heating Purposes in a Residential Building in Comparison with other Energy Sources
PublikacjaThis paper discusses the results of analyses investigating the energy efficiency of biomass in comparison with other popular energy carriers used for heating, ventilation and water heating in residential buildings. The compared energy sources were lignite, natural gas, heating oil and electricity produced by conventional and integrated power generation plants. The most efficient variant relying on biomass and the least efficient...

Reducing Air Pollutant Emissions from the Residential Sector by Switching to Alternative Energy Sources in SingleFamily Homes
PublikacjaThe paper discusses a scenario for adapting residential buildings to the requirements of the EU climate and energy package. It analyzes the option of reducing pollutant emissions to ambient air by switching to alternative energy sources in a typical singlefamily residential building. The most common sources of energy in central heating and ventilation systems and water heating systems were compared, and the analyzed energy carriers...

Central heating temperature control algorithm for systems with condensing boilers
PublikacjaThe problem of control of a central heating system in a small residence is considered. It is assumed that the system is based on a condensing boiler. Since the boiler efficiency depends on a returning water temperature, the proposed control goal is to provide proper air temperature in the residence as well as the lowest possible water temperature. The proposed algorithm is applied to two buildings. Both of them have the same heating...

Optimisation of turbine shaft heating process under steam turbine runup conditions
PublikacjaAn important operational task for thermal turbines during runup and rundown is to keep the stresses in the structural elements at a right level. This applies not only to their instantaneous values, but also to the impact of them on the engine lifetime. The turbine shaft is a particularly important element. The distribution of stresses depends on geometric characteristics of the shaft and its specific locations. This means a groove manufactured...

Acoustic Heating Produced in the Thermoviscous Flow of a ShearThinning Fluid
PublikacjaThis study is devoted to the instantaneous acoustic heating of a shearthinningfluid. Apparent viscosity of a shearthinning fluid depends on the shear rate. Thatfeature distinguishes it from a viscous Newtonian fluid. The special linear combination of conservation equations in the differential form makes it possible to derivedynamic equations governing both the sound and nonwave entropy mode inducedin the field of sound. These...

Magnetoacoustic heating in a quasiisentropic magnetic gas
PublikacjaThe nonlinear heating of a plasma which associates with the transfer of energy of magnetoacoustic waves into that of the entropy mode, is analytically studied. A plasma is uniform and motionless at equilibrium. Perturbations in a plasma are described by a system of ideal magnetohydrodynamic equations. The equilibrium straight magnetic strength and the wave vector form a constant angle which varies from 0 to π/2. There exist four...

Synthesis and characterisation of starch cuprate
PublikacjaThe cupration of granular potato starch with ammonium tetrachlorocuprate(II) was performed by a 20 min lasting microwaveassisted process and by 40 min convectional heating. In both cases the degree of esterification (DE) did not exceed 0.0064. A higher dose of cuprate had a positive effect on DE, regardless of whether the microwave irradiation or the convectional heating was applied, and on the thermal stability of the starch...

MAGNETOACOUSTIC HEATING AND STREAMING IN A PLASMA WITH FINITE ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY
PublikacjaNonlinear effects of planar and quasiplanar magnetosound perturbations are discussed. Plasma is assumed to be an ideal gas with a finite electrical conductivity permeated by a magnetic filed orthogonal to the trajectories of gas particles. the excitation of nonwave modes in the filed of intense magnetoacoustic perturbations, i.e., magnetoaciustic heating and streaming, is discussed. The analysis includes a derivation if instantaneous...

The influence of sterilization with EnbioJet Microwave Flow Pasteurizer on composition and bioactivity of aronia and blueberried honeysuckle juices
PublikacjaIn this study, fruit juices that are rich sources of anthocyanins, obtained from aronia (Am. chokeberry, Aronia melanocarpa) and blueberry honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea L. var. edulis) were used to examine the preservation of plant phytochemicals and bioactivity upon sterilization either thermal, or with an EnbioJet microwave flow pasteurizer. The chemical properties verified included determinations of anthocyanins and other...

Propagation of initially sawtooth periodic and impulsive signals in a quasiisentropic magnetic gas
PublikacjaThe characteristics of propagation of sawtooth periodic and impulsive signals at a transducer are analytically studied in this work. A plasma under consideration is motionless and uniform at equilibrium, and its perturbations are described by a system of ideal magnetohydrodynamic equations. Some generic heating/cooling function, which in turn depends on equilibrium thermodynamic parameters, may destroy adiabaticity of a flow and...

The effect of heating and fermenting on antioxidant properties of white cabbage
PublikacjaIt is widely believed that natural antioxidants found in food are significantly lost during processing. Nevertheless, it was recently demonstrated that processed fruits and vegetables may retain their antioxidant activity. In the present work, the changes in the overall antioxidant properties as a consequence of fermentation of cabbage and/or heat treatment of cabbage juices and extracts were studied. Fermentation processes as...

Study of the effect of adiabatic heating on the operation of the electrodynamic actuator
PublikacjaElectrodynamic actuators are used in hybrid switching systems where a very quick contact separation as well as operation repeatability and longterm reliability are required. The article presents selected results of thermal studies in the electrodynamic drive system. Study was carried out on the basis of the 3D electromagnetothermal model implemented in the Ansys_Maxwell environment. The present model allows to determine the critical...

Acoustic field and the entropy mode induced by it in a waveguide filled with some nonequilibrium gases
PublikacjaThe nonlinear propagation of an acoustic beam in a rectangular waveguide is considered. The medium of sound propagation, is a gas where thermodynamically nonequilibrium processes take place: such as exothermic chemical reactions or excitation of vibrational degrees of a molecule’s freedom. The incident and reflected compounds of the acoustic field do not interact in the leading order in the case of periodic weakly nonlinear sound...

Experimental investigation and process parameter optimization of sheet metal bending by line heating method
PublikacjaThe present study is concerned with the experimental investigation of sheet metal deforming by line heating method that incorporates the combined effect of traverse speed of the torch, thickness of the sheet metal, and the number of passes of the torch. For the numerical analysis of metal bending by line heating, the

Charakterystyka eksploatacyjna pomp ciepła zainstalowanych w oczyszczalni ścieków
PublikacjaW artykule przedstawiono charakterystykę eksploatacyjną sprężarkowych pomp ciepła zainstalowanych w oczyszczalni komunalnej i wykorzystujących ścieki oczyszczone jako dolne źródło ciepła. Zastosowanie ścieków oczyszczonych jest uzasadnione ich dostępnością oraz stosunkowo wysoką temperaturą (1025°C). Prawidłowa eksploatacja układu wymaga zastosowania pośredniego obiegu parowacza oraz regularnych zabiegów czyszczenia wymiennika...

Microwave heat treatment application to pasteurization of human milk
PublikacjaA prototype of microwave pasteurizer has been proposed as an alternative for holder pasteurization (HP) routinely used in Human Milk Bank (HMB), ensuring microbiological safety of human milk (HM). It was shown that the time of heat generation was about 15–16 min shorter by applying the microwave than in HP. Total inactivation of heatsensitive bacteria Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus...

Magnetoacoustic Heating in Nonisentropic Plasma Caused by Different Kinds of HeatingCooling Function
PublikacjaThe nonlinear phenomena which associate with magnetoacoustic waves in a plasma are analytically studied. A plasma is an open system with external inflow of energy and radiation losses. A plasma’s flow may be isentropically stable or unstable. The nonlinear phenomena occur differently in dependence on stability or instability of a plasma’s flow. The nonlinear instantaneous equation which describes dynamics of nonwave entropy mode...

Smart Asset Management for District Heating Systems in the Baltic Sea Region.
PublikacjaThe purpose of this review is to provide insight and a comparison of the current status of district heating (DH) systems for selected Baltic Sea countries (Denmark, Germany, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, and Sweden), especially from viewpoints of application and solutions of novel smart asset management (SAM) approaches. Furthermore, this paper considers European projects ongoing from 2016, involving participants from the...

About definition of modes and magnetosonic heating in a plasma’s flow: Especial cases of perpendicular and nearly perpendicular wave vector and magnetic field
PublikacjaDynamics of hydrodynamic perturbations in a plasma depend strongly on an angle between the wave vector and equilibrium straight magnetic field. The case of perpendicular propagation is especial. There are only two (fast) magnetosonic modes since two (slow) ones degenerate into the stationary one with zero speed of propagation. This demands individual definition of wave modes by the links of hydrodynamic relations. These links are...

Enhancement of the Brayton cycle efficiency by water or steam utilization
PublikacjaIn the paper, thermodynamic analysis of two modifications of a Brayton cycle into enhancement cycles with water/steam injection are discussed. The first one deals with a STIG modified system with both interstage compressed air cooling and air heating (heat regeneration) before combustion chamber. The second one, mainly devoted to higher steam/air ratio, is connected with separate steam production in a HRSG. The analysis has been...