The purpose of this paper is to discuss the problem of changes of effectiveness of Kickuth-type constructed wetland with subsurface flow applied to domestic wastewater treatment. This study is based on an example of a wetland 3000 m2 in surface, serving 800 inhabitants, located in Poland. The results of chemical analysis showed that after an initial year of ‘start-up time’, the efficiency of pollutant removal gradually increased to reach an apex in the 6th year of operation. Such maximum efficiency continued up to the 10th year of operation; afterwards it gradually dropped. Moreover, after 12 years of operation, a serious problem with overland flow was observed, which indicated the porous media clogging processes.
Web of Science
LicenseCopyright (2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group)
- artykuł w czasopiśmie wyróżnionym w JCR
- Published in:
pages 1133 - 1143,
- Publication year:
- Bibliographic description:
- Mucha Z., Wójcik W., Jóźwiakowski K., Gajewska M.: Long-term operation of Kickuth-type constructed wetland applied to municipal wastewater treatment in temperate climate// ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY. -Vol. 39, iss. 9 (2018), s.1133-1143
- Digital Object Identifier (open in new tab) 10.1080/09593330.2017.1323014
- Bibliography: test
- Mikosz J, Mucha Z. Validation of design assumptions for small wastewater treatment plant modernization in line with new interpretation of legal requirements. Ochr Śr. 2014;1:45-49.
- HELCOM. HELCOM Baltic Sea action plan. Kraków: Helsinki Commission; 2007.
- Cooper P. The performance of vertical flow constructed wetland system with special reference to the significance of oxygen transfer and hydraulic loading rates. Water Sci Tech. 2005;51(9):81-90. open in new tab
- Brix H, Arias C. The use of vertical flow constructed wet- lands for on-site treatment of domestic wastewater: new Danish guidelines. Ecol Eng. 2005;25(5):491-500. open in new tab
- Gajewska M, Obarska-Pempkowiak H. Efficiency of pollu- tant removal by five multistage constructed wetlands in a temperate climate. Env Protect Engin. 2011;37(3):27-36. open in new tab
- Jóźwiakowski K, Mucha Z, Generowicz A, et al. The use of multi-criteria analysis for selection of technology for a household WWTP compatible with sustainable develop- ment. Arch Environ Prot. 2015;3:76-82. open in new tab
- Jóźwiakowski K. [Studies on the efficiency of sewage treat- ment in chosen constructed wetland systems]. Infrastruct Ecol Rural Areas. 2012;1:232. Polish.
- Kadlec RH, Wallace S. Treatment wetlands, 2nd ed. New York (NY): CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group; 2009.
- Vymazal J. Horizontal sub-surface flow and hybrid con- structed wetland systems for wastewater treatment. Ecol Eng. 2005;25:478-490. open in new tab
- Vymazal J, Kröpfelová L. Wastewater treatment in con- structed wetlands with horizontal sub-surface flow. Dordrecht: Springer; 2008. 566. open in new tab
- Kickuth R. Degradation and incorporation of nutrients from rural wastewaters by plant rhizosphere under limnic conditions. In: Voorberg JH, editor. Utilization of manure by land spreading. London: Commission of the European Communities, EUR 5672e; 1977. p. 335-343. open in new tab
- Langergraber G, Pressl A, Leroch K, et al. Long-term behavior of a two stage CW system regarding nitrogen removal. Water Sci Technol. 2011;64:1137-1141. open in new tab
- Langergraber G, Prandtstetten C, Pressl A, et al. Removal efficiency of subsurface vertical flow constructed wet- lands for different organic loads. Water Sci. Technol. 2007;56(3):75-84. open in new tab
- WFD/2000/60/EU. Water Framework Directive of 23 October 2000 establishing a framework for Community action in the field of water policy. European Commission Publication Office; 2000. open in new tab
- COUNCIL DIRECTIVE of 21 May 1991 concerning urban waste water treatment (91/271/EEC). European Commission Publication Office; 1991. open in new tab
- Polish standards according limits for discharged sewage and environmental protection from July, 24 2006 (No. 137 item 984) and January, 28 2009 (No. 27 item 169) and November, 18 2014 (No. 2014 item 1800). Rzadowe Centrum Legislacji. open in new tab
- Baza Danych Geologiczno -Inżynierskich wraz z opraco- waniem Atlasu Geologiczno - Inżynierskiego open in new tab
- American Public Health Association (APHA). Standard methods for examination of water and wastewater. 18th ed. Washington (DC): American Public Health Association; 1992. open in new tab
- American Public Health Association (APHA). Standard methods for examination of water and wastewater. 21st ed. Washington (DC): American Public Health Association; 2005. open in new tab
- Platzer C. Enhanced nitrogen elimination in subsurface flow artificial wetlands -a multi stage concept. Proceedings of 5th International conference on wetland system for water pollution control; Vienna: Universitaet fur Bandenkutur Wien and International Association on Water Quality; 1996. p. 1-8. open in new tab
- Obarska-Pempkowiak H, Gajewska M, Wojciechowska E. Application, design and operation of constructed wetland systems: case studies of systems in the Gdańsk region, Poland. Ecohydrol Hydrobiol. 2007;7(3-4):303-309. open in new tab
- Scott D, Wallace PE. Design & performance of drip disper- sal systems in freezing environments. [cited 2016 May 4].
- Kadlec RH, Knight RL. Treatment wetlands. Boca Raton (FL): Lewis -CRC Press; 1996.
- Knowles PR, Dotro G, Nivala J, et al. Clogging in subsur- face-flow treatment wetlands: occurrence and contribut- ing factors. Ecol. Eng. 2011;37(2):99-112. open in new tab
- Gajewska M. Influence of composition of raw wastewater on removal of nitrogen compounds. Environ Prot Eng. 2015;3:19-31. open in new tab
- Brix H. Role of macrophytes in constructed wetlands. Proceedings of 5th International Conference on Wetland System for Water Pollution Control; Vienna: Universitat fur Bodenkultur Wie and International Association on Water for water pollution control, Universitat fur Bodenkultur Wien and International Association on Water Quality; 1996. p. 4-8. open in new tab
- Kadlec RH. Deterministic and stochastic aspect of con- structed wetland performance and design. Water Sci Technol. 1997;35(5):149-156. open in new tab
- Gajewska M, Jóźwiakowski K, Ghrabi A, et al. Impact of influent wastewater quality on nitrogen removal rates in multistage treatment wetlands. Environ Sci Pollut Res. 2015;22:12840-12848. open in new tab
- Gizińska-Górna M, Czekała W, Jóźwiakowski K, et al. The possibility of using plants from hybrid constructed wetland wastewater treatment plants for energy pur- poses. Ecol Eng. 2016;95:534-541. open in new tab
- Verified by:
- Gdańsk University of Technology
seen 20 times