NonNewtonian Mathematics Instead of NonNewtonian Physics: Dark Matter and Dark Energy from a Mismatch of Arithmetics
Abstract
Newtonian physics is based on Newtonian calculus applied to Newtonian dynamics. New paradigms such as ‘modified Newtonian dynamics’ (MOND) change the dynamics, but do not alter the calculus. However, calculus is dependent on arithmetic, that is the ways we add and multiply numbers. For example, in special relativity we add and subtract velocities by means of addition β1⊕β2=tanh(tanh−1(β1)+tanh−1(β2)), although multiplication β1⊙β2=tanh(tanh−1(β1)⋅tanh−1(β2)), and division β1⊘β2=tanh(tanh−1(β1)/tanh−1(β2)) do not seem to appear in the literature. The map fX(β)=tanh−1(β) defines an isomorphism of the arithmetic in X=(−1,1) with the standard one in R. The new arithmetic is projective and nonDiophantine in the sense of Burgin (Uspekhi Matematicheskich Nauk 32:209–210 (in Russian), 1977), while ultrarelativistic velocities are superlarge in the sense of Kolmogorov (Technika Molodezhi 10:16–19 (11:30–33 in Russian), 1961). Velocity of light plays a role of nonDiophantine infinity. The new arithmetic allows us to define the corresponding derivative and integral, and thus a new calculus which is nonNewtonian in the sense of Grossman and Katz (NonNewtonian calculus, Lee Press, Pigeon Cove, 1972). Treating the above example as a paradigm, we ask what can be said about the set X of ‘real numbers’, and the isomorphism fX:X→R, if we assume the standard form of Newtonian mechanics and general relativity (formulated by means of the new calculus) but demand agreement with astrophysical observations. It turns out that the observable accelerated expansion of the Universe can be reconstructed with zero cosmological constant if fX(t/tH)≈0.8sinh(t−t1)/(0.8tH). The resulting nonNewtonian model is exactly equivalent to the standard Newtonian one with ΩΛ=0.7, ΩM=0.3. Asymptotically flat rotation curves are obtained if ‘zero’, the neutral element 0X of addition, is nonzero from the point of view of the standard arithmetic of R. This implies f−1X(0)=0X>0. The opposition Diophantine versus nonDiophantine, or Newtonian versus nonNewtonian, is an arithmetic analogue of Euclidean versus nonEuclidean in geometry. We do not yet know if the proposed generalization ultimately removes any need of dark matter, but it will certainly change estimates of its parameters. Physics of the dark universe seems to be both geometry and arithmetic.
Citations

6
CrossRef

0
Web of Science

7
Scopus
Author (1)
Cite as
Full text
 Publication version
 Accepted or Published Version
 DOI:
 Digital Object Identifier (open in new tab) 10.1007/s10699020096879
 License
 open in new tab
Keywords
Details
 Category:
 Articles
 Type:
 artykuły w czasopismach
 Published in:

Foundations of Science
no. 26,
pages 75  95,
ISSN: 12331821  Language:
 English
 Publication year:
 2021
 Bibliographic description:
 Czachor M.: NonNewtonian Mathematics Instead of NonNewtonian Physics: Dark Matter and Dark Energy from a Mismatch of Arithmetics// Foundations of Science Vol. 26, (2021), s.7595
 DOI:
 Digital Object Identifier (open in new tab) 10.1007/s10699020096879
 Verified by:
 Gdańsk University of Technology
seen 140 times
Recommended for you
Production of hydrogen from biomass and its separation using membranetechnology
 G. Sołowski,
 M. Shalaby,
 A. Heba
 + 2 authors