Medieval Bourgeois Tenement Houses as an Archetype for Contemporary Architectural and Construction Solutions: The Example of Historic Downtown Gdańsk - Publication - MOST Wiedzy

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Medieval Bourgeois Tenement Houses as an Archetype for Contemporary Architectural and Construction Solutions: The Example of Historic Downtown Gdańsk

Abstract

The basic urban tissue of medieval European cities consisted of brick townhouses. In the cities of northern Europe, these tenements were characterised by a block based on an elongated rectangular plan, covered with a gable roof with a ridge oriented perpendicularly to the street. The side walls of the tenement house were common for both neighbours and constituted a basic structural element. The gable façades were not loaded with ceilings, providing freedom in shaping them. The aim of this work is to determine the reasons why this method of shaping tenement houses in historical city centres has survived to the present day, becoming an archetype for contemporary architectural and construction solutions, despite the passage of time, numerous historical events, war damage, changing architectural styles, fashions and building techniques and technologies. The historical centre of Gdańsk has become the research material in this paper, where by means of such methods as historical source material analysis (iconographic), observation (operationalisation of preserved historical objects), comparative analysis of completed contemporary investments, and 3D modelling of structural systems, an attempt has been made to determine the main factors determining contemporary architectural and structural solutions. The reason for the extraordinary durability of this type of construction model can be found in the enormous rationality and efficiency of this solution. It allows for very intensive use of land, easy access of all front elevations to the main communication routes, cheapness of construction resulting from small spans and use of common structural walls for the neighbouring buildings, ease of shaping gable elevations, and fire safety. Aesthetic considerations are probably also important here, although it should be assumed that their significance began to grow only in the second half of the 19th century. However, it seems that the most important factor which made the model of the mediaeval bourgeois tenement house become an archetype for contemporary architectural and construction solutions is the timeless message contained in this model, a specific code allowing it to be unambiguously identified as a form of urban house – a place of safe living and at the same time a visible sign of the rich history of European cities, an element creating their cultural and spatial identity, a component of the living, constantly transforming urban fabric.

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Details

Category:
Articles
Type:
artykuły w czasopismach
Published in:
Buildings no. 11,
ISSN: 2075-5309
Language:
English
Publication year:
2021
Bibliographic description:
Taraszkiewicz A., Grębowski K., Taraszkiewicz K., Przewłócki J.: Medieval Bourgeois Tenement Houses as an Archetype for Contemporary Architectural and Construction Solutions: The Example of Historic Downtown Gdańsk// Buildings -Vol. 11,iss. 3 (2021), s.80-
DOI:
Digital Object Identifier (open in new tab) 10.3390/buildings11030080
Verified by:
Gdańsk University of Technology

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