Regulated Assembly of LPS, Its Structural Alterations and Cellular Response to LPS Defects
Distinguishing feature of the outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative bacteria is its asymmetry due to the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the outer leaflet of the OM and phospholipids in the inner leaflet. Recent studies have revealed the existence of regulatory controls that ensure a balanced biosynthesis of LPS and phospholipids, both of which are essential for bacterial viability. LPS provides the essential permeability barrier function and act as a major virulence determinant. In Escherichia coli, more than 100 genes are required for LPS synthesis, its assembly at inner leaflet of the inner membrane (IM), extraction from the IM, translocation to the OM, and in its structural alterations in response to various environmental and stress signals. Although LPS are highly heterogeneous, they share common structural elements defining their most conserved hydrophobic lipid A part to which a core polysaccharide is attached, which is further extended in smooth bacteria by O-antigen. Defects or any imbalance in LPS biosynthesis cause major cellular defects, which elicit envelope responsive signal transduction controlled by RpoE sigma factor and two-component systems (TCS). RpoE regulon members and specific TCSs, including their non-coding arm, regulate incorporation of non-stoichiometric modifications of LPS, contributing to LPS heterogeneity and impacting antibiotic resistance.
0Web of Science
Gracjana Klein-Raina, Satish Raina. (2019). Regulated Assembly of LPS, Its Structural Alterations and Cellular Response to LPS Defects, 20(2), 1-22. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20020356
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LicencjaCopyright (Satish Raina, Gracjana Klein, International Journal of Molecular Sciences)
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