Achieving energy neutrality in wastewater treatment plants through energy savings and enhancing renewable energy production
Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) consume high amounts of energy which is mostly purchased from the grid. During the past years, many ongoing measures have taken place to analyze the possible solutions for both reducing the energy consumption and increasing the renewable energy production in the plants. This review contains all possible aspects which may assist to move towards energy neutrality in WWTPs. The sources of energy in wastewater were introduced and different indicators to express the energy consumption were discussed with examples of the operating WWTPs worldwide. Furthermore, the pathways for energy consumption reductions were reviewed including the operational strategies and the novel technological upgrades of the wastewater treatment processes. Then the methods of recovering the potential energy hidden in wastewater were described along with application of renewable energies in WWTPs. The available assessment methods, which may help in analyzing and comparing WWTPs in terms of energy and greenhouse gas emissions were introduced. Eventually, successful case studies on energy self-sufficiency of WWTPs were listed and the innovative projects in this area were presented.
Mojtaba Maktabifard, Ewa Zaborowska, Jacek Mąkinia. (2018). Achieving energy neutrality in wastewater treatment plants through energy savings and enhancing renewable energy production, 17(4), 655-689. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11157-018-9478-x
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