Developing a Framework for the Implementation of Landscape and Greenspace Indicators in Sustainable Urban Planning. Waterfront Landscape Management: Case Studies in Gdańsk, Poznań and Bristol - Publikacja - MOST Wiedzy

Wyszukiwarka

Developing a Framework for the Implementation of Landscape and Greenspace Indicators in Sustainable Urban Planning. Waterfront Landscape Management: Case Studies in Gdańsk, Poznań and Bristol

Abstrakt

Urban landscape (UL) management and urban greenspace (UG) delivery require effective planning tools. The aim of the study is to develop a conceptual framework for the implementation of ecological, structural and visual landscape and greenspace indicators (LGI) in spatial development of urban areas. The UL and UG management provisions in Poland are identified at various levels of urban planning (local, municipal and regional). Furthermore, the applicability of the selected set of LGI in the Polish planning system is considered based on the existing planning documents. The quality of UL and UG transformation is discussed in three case studies in Bristol, Gda ´nsk and Pozna ´n in the broader context of the English and Polish spatial planning systems. Bristol is used as a point of reference for the evaluation of UL and UG management in Poland and for the comparison between English and Polish landscape policies. Based on the conceptual framework and the analysis of the case studies, critical areas of UL and UG management in Poland are identified. The existing planning system often fails to ensure the continuity of landscape structures, and it does not include its preservation and enhancement to a sufficient extent. Therefore, the implementation of the proposed LGI framework could significantly improve the ecological and visual quality, as well as the structural diversity of UL and UG. Moreover, the article concludes by indicating some practical implications of the proposed LGI framework for urban planners, policy makers and other stakeholders in terms of improving the modes of governance for UL and UG management as well as of accounting for human health and well-being.

Cytowania

  • 1 6

    CrossRef

  • 1 2

    Web of Science

  • 1 6

    Scopus

Autorzy (2)

Cytuj jako

Pełna treść

pobierz publikację
pobrano 45 razy
Wersja publikacji
Accepted albo Published Version
Licencja
Creative Commons: CC-BY otwiera się w nowej karcie

Słowa kluczowe

Informacje szczegółowe

Kategoria:
Publikacja w czasopiśmie
Typ:
artykuł w czasopiśmie wyróżnionym w JCR
Opublikowano w:
Sustainability nr 11, strony 1 - 26,
ISSN:
Język:
angielski
Rok wydania:
2019
Opis bibliograficzny:
Badach J., Raszeja E.: Developing a Framework for the Implementation of Landscape and Greenspace Indicators in Sustainable Urban Planning. Waterfront Landscape Management: Case Studies in Gdańsk, Poznań and Bristol// Sustainability. -Vol. 11, iss. 8 (2019), s.1-26
DOI:
Cyfrowy identyfikator dokumentu elektronicznego (otwiera się w nowej karcie) 10.3390/su11082291
Bibliografia: test
  1. Yigitcanlar, T.; Teriman, S. Rethinking sustainable urban development: towards an integrated planning and development process. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2015, 12, 341-352. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  2. Ioppolo, G.; Cucurachi, S.; Salomone, R.; Saija, G.; Shi, L. Sustainable Local Development and Environmental Governance: A Strategic Planning Experience. Sustainability 2016, 8, 180. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  3. Alberti, M.; Waddell, P. An integrated urban development and ecological simulation model. Integr. Assess. 2000, 1, 215-227. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  4. Hostetler, M.; Allen, W.; Meurk, C. Conserving urban biodiversity? Creating green infrastructure is only the first step. Landsc. Urban Plan. 2011, 100, 369-371. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  5. Grêt-Regamey, A.; Altwegg, J.; Sirén, E.A.; van Strien, M.J.; Weibel, B. Integrating ecosystem services into spatial planning-A spatial decision support tool. Landsc. Urban Plan. 2017, 165, 206-219. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  6. Abraham, A.; Sommerhalder, K.; Abel, T. Landscape and well-being: A scoping study on the health-promoting impact of outdoor environments. Int. J. Public Health 2010, 55, 59-69. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  7. Velarde, M.D.; Fry, G.; Tveit, M. Health effects of viewing landscapes-Landscape types in environmental psychology. Urban For. Urban Green. 2007, 6, 199-212. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  8. Wolch, J.R.; Byrne, J.; Newell, J.P. Urban green space, public health, and environmental justice: The challenge of making cities "just green enough". Landsc. Urban Plan. 2014, 125, 234-244. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  9. Tzoulas, K.; Korpela, K.; Venn, S.; Yli-Pelkonen, V.; Kaźmierczak, A.; Niemela, J.; James, P. Promoting ecosystem and human health in urban areas using Green Infrastructure: A literature review. Landsc. Urban Plan. 2007, 81, 167-178. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  10. Gavrilidis, A.A.; Ciocănea, C.M.; Niţă, M.R.; Onose, D.A.; Năstase, I.I. Urban Landscape Quality Index-Planning Tool for Evaluating Urban Landscapes and Improving the Quality of Life. Procedia Environ. Sci. 2016, 32, 155-167. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  11. Kowarik, I. Novel urban ecosystems, biodiversity, and conservation. Environ. Pollut. 2011, 159, 1974-1983. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  12. Loures, L. Post-industrial landscapes as drivers for urban redevelopment: Public versus expert perspectives towards the benefits and barriers of the reuse of post-industrial sites in urban areas. Habitat Int. 2015, 45, 72-81. [CrossRef] Sustainability 2019, 11, 2291 22 of 26 otwiera się w nowej karcie
  13. Runhaar, H.; Driessen, P.P.J.; Soer, L. Sustainable urban development and the challenge of policy integration: An assessment of planning tools for integrating spatial and environmental planning in the Netherlands. Environ. Plan. B Plan. Des. 2009, 36, 417-431. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  14. Ahern, J. Urban landscape sustainability and resilience: The promise and challenges of integrating ecology with urban planning and design. Landsc. Ecol. 2013, 28, 1203-1212. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  15. Badach, J.; Kolasińska, P.; Paciorek, M.; Wojnowski, W.; Dymerski, T.; Gębicki, J.; Dymnicka, M.; Namieśnik, J. A case study of odour nuisance evaluation in the context of integrated urban planning. J. Environ. Manag. 2018, 213, 417-424. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  16. Raszeja, E.; Badach, J. Urban space recovery. Landscape-beneficial solutions in new estates built in post-industrial and post-military areas in Bristol, Poznań and Gdańsk. Misc. Geogr. 2018, 22, 210-218. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  17. Steiner, F. Landscape ecological urbanism: Origins and trajectories. Landsc. Urban Plan. 2011, 100, 333-337. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  18. Tress, G.; Tress, B.; Fry, G. Analysis of the barriers to integration in landscape research projects. Land Use Policy 2007, 24, 374-385. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  19. Bürgi, M.; Ali, P.; Chowdhury, A.; Heinimann, A.; Hett, C.; Kienast, F.; Mondal, M.K.; Upreti, B.R.; Verburg, P.H. Integrated Landscape Approach: Closing the Gap between Theory and Application. Sustainability 2017, 9, 1371. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  20. Hiremath, R.B.; Balachandra, P.; Kumar, B.; Bansode, S.S.; Murali, J. Indicator-based urban sustainability-A review. Energy Sustain. Dev. 2013, 17, 555-563. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  21. Lowry, J.H.; Lowry, M.B. Comparing spatial metrics that quantify urban form. Comput. Environ. Urban Syst. 2014, 44, 59-67. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  22. Vanderhaegen, S.; Canters, F. Mapping urban form and function at city block level using spatial metrics. Landsc. Urban Plan. 2017, 167, 399-409. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  23. Liu, M.; Hu, Y.M.; Li, C.L. Landscape metrics for three-dimensional urban building pattern recognition. Appl. Geogr. 2017, 87, 66-72. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  24. Zhao, C.; Fu, G.; Liu, X.; Fu, F. Urban planning indicators, morphology and climate indicators: A case study for a north-south transect of Beijing, China. Build. Environ. 2011, 46, 1174-1183. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  25. Fry, G.; Tveit, M.S.; Ode, A.; Velaverde, M.D. The ecology of visual landscapes: Exploring the conceptual common ground of visual and ecological landscape indicators. Ecol. Indic. 2009, 9, 933-947. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  26. Llausàs, A.; Nogué, J. Indicators of landscape fragmentation: The case for combining ecological indices and the perceptive approach. Ecol. Indic. 2012, 15, 85-91. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  27. Antrop, M. From holistic landscape synthesis to transdisciplinary landscape management. In From Landscape Research to Landscape Planning: Aspects of Integration, Education and Application; Tress, B., Tress, G., Fry, G., Opdam, P., Eds.; Springer: Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2005; pp. 27-50. otwiera się w nowej karcie
  28. Botequilha Leitão, A.; Ahern, J. Applying landscape ecological concepts and metrics in sustainable landscape planning. Landsc. Urban Plan. 2002, 59, 65-93. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  29. Wang, R.; Zhao, J.; Liu, Z. Consensus in visual preferences: The effects of aesthetic quality and landscape types. Urban For. Urban Green. 2016, 20, 210-217. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  30. Uuemaa, E.; Mander, Ü.; Marja, R. Trends in the use of landscape spatial metrics as landscape indicators: A review. Ecol. Indic. 2013, 28, 100-106. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  31. Uuemaa, E.; Antrop, M.; Roosaare, J.; Marja, R.; Mander, Ü. Landscape Metrics and Indices: An Overview of Their Use in Landscape Research. Living Rev. Landsc. Res. 2009, 3, 1-28. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  32. Aguilera, F.; Valenzuela, L.M.; Botequilha-Leitão, A. Landscape metrics in the analysis of urban land use patterns: A case study in a Spanish metropolitan area. Landsc. Urban Plan. 2011, 99, 226-238. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  33. Pham, H.M.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Bui, T.Q. A case study on the relation between city planning and urban growth using remote sensing and spatial metrics. Landsc. Urban Plan. 2011, 100, 223-230. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  34. Ramachandra, T.V.; Bharath, A.H.; Sowmyashree, M.V. Monitoring urbanization and its implications in a mega city from space: Spatiotemporal patterns and its indicators. J. Environ. Manag. 2015, 148, 67-81. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  35. Zhou, W.; Huang, G.; Cadenasso, M.L. Does spatial configuration matter? Understanding the effects of land cover pattern on land surface temperature in urban landscapes. Landsc. Urban Plan. 2011, 102, 54-63. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  36. McCarty, J.; Kaza, N. Urban form and air quality in the United States. Landsc. Urban Plan. 2015, 139, 168-179. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  37. owicki, D. Landscape pattern as an indicator of urban air pollution of particulate matter in Poland. Ecol. Indic. 2019, 97, 17-24. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  38. Weber, N.; Haase, D.; Franck, U. Assessing modelled outdoor traffic-induced noise and air pollution around urban structures using the concept of landscape metrics. Landsc. Urban Plan. 2014, 125, 105-116. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  39. Whitford, V.; Ennos, A.R.; Handley, J.F. "City form and natural process"-Indicators for the ecological performance of urban areas and their application to Merseyside, UK. Landsc. Urban Plan. 2001, 57, 91-103. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  40. Lustig, A.; Stouffer, D.B.; Roigé, M.; Worner, S.P. Towards more predictable and consistent landscape metrics across spatial scales. Ecol. Indic. 2015, 57, 11-21. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  41. Hermy, M.; Cornelis, J. Towards a monitoring method and a number of multifaceted and hierarchical biodiversity indicators for urban and suburban parks. Landsc. Urban Plan. 2000, 49, 149-162. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  42. Solon, J. Sustainable landscape evaluation-In search of new ndicators [in Polish]. In Ecological-Landscape Studies in the Programing of Sustainable Development. Overview of Polish Experiences at the Verge of Integration with the European Union. [in Polish];
  43. Kistowski, M., Ed.; University of Gdańsk: Gdańsk, Poland, 2004; pp. 49-58.
  44. Szulczewska, B.; Giedych, R.; Borowski, J.; Kuchcik, M.; Sikorski, P.; Mazurkiewicz, A.; Stańczyk, T. How much green is needed for a vital neighbourhood? In search for empirical evidence. Land Use policy 2014, 38, 330-345. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  45. Senate Department for the Environment Transport and Climate Protection A Green City Center-BAF-Biotope Area Factor. Available online: https://www.berlin.de/senuvk/umwelt/landschaftsplanung/bff/index_en.shtml (accessed on 28 October 2018). otwiera się w nowej karcie
  46. Seattle Department of Construction & Inspections Seattle Green Factor. Available online: http://www.seattle. gov/sdci/codes/codes-we-enforce-(a-z)/seattle-green-factor (accessed on 28 October 2018). otwiera się w nowej karcie
  47. Kruuse, A. GRaBS (Green and Blue Space Adaptation for Urban Areas and Eco Towns) Expert Paper 6: The Green Space Factor and the Green Points System; Town and Country Planning Association: London, UK, 2011.
  48. Gupta, K.; Kumar, P.; Pathan, S.K.; Sharma, K.P. Urban Neighborhood Green Index-A measure of green spaces in urban areas. Landsc. Urban Plan. 2012, 105, 325-335. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  49. Gałecka-Drozda, A.; Raszeja, E.; Szczepańska, M.; Wilkaniec, A. Land Cover Changes in Natura 2000 Areas Located in Suburban Zones: Planning Problems in the Context of Environmental Protection. Polish J. Environ. Stud. 2018, 28, 1-9. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  50. Hanley, N.; Ready, R.; Colombo, S.; Watson, F.; Stewart, M.; Bergmann, E.A. The impacts of knowledge of the past on preferences for future landscape change. J. Environ. Manage. 2009, 90, 1404-1412. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  51. Handley, J.; Pauleit, S.; Slinn, P.; Barber, A.; Baker, M.; Jones, C.; Lindley, S. Accesible Natural Green Space. Standards in towns and cities: A review and toolkit for their implementation. Report Number 526; Natural England: Peterborough, England, 2003.
  52. Natural England. 'Nature Nearby' Accessible Natural Greenspace Guidance;
  53. Thompson, G., Ed.; Natural England: Sheffield, UK, 2010.
  54. Moseley, D.; Marzano, M.; Chetcuti, J.; Watts, K. Green networks for people: Application of a functional approach to support the planning and management of greenspace. Landsc. Urban Plan. 2013, 116, 1-12. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  55. La Rosa, D. Accessibility to greenspaces: GIS based indicators for sustainable planning in a dense urban context. Ecol. Indic. 2014, 42, 122-134. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  56. Rojas, C.; Páez, A.; Barbosa, O.; Carrasco, J. Accessibility to urban green spaces in Chilean cities using adaptive thresholds. J. Transp. Geogr. 2016, 57, 227-240. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  57. Wang, D.; Brown, G.; Liu, Y.; Mateo-Babiano, I. A comparison of perceived and geographic access to predict urban park use. Cities 2015, 42, 85-96. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  58. Wan, C.; Shen, G.Q. Encouraging the use of urban green space: The mediating role of attitude, perceived usefulness and perceived behavioural control. Habitat Int. 2015, 50, 130-139. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  59. Verbič, M.; Slabe-Erker, R.; Klun, M. Contingent valuation of urban public space: A case study of Ljubljanica riverbanks. Land use policy 2016, 56, 58-67. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  60. Gobster, P.H.; Nassauer, J.I.; Daniel, T.C.; Fry, G. The shared landscape: What does aesthetics have to do with ecology? Landsc. Ecol. 2007, 22, 959-972. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  61. Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe. European Landscape Convention; Council of Europe: Florence, Italy, 2000. otwiera się w nowej karcie
  62. Daniel, T.C. Whither scenic beauty? Visual landscape quality assessment in the 21st century. Landsc. Urban Plan. 2001, 54, 267-281. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  63. Tveit, M.S. Indicators of visual scale as predictors of landscape preference; a comparison between groups. J. Environ. Manag. 2009, 90, 2882-2888. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  64. Raszeja, E.; Mikulski, D. Integrated assessment of social value of landscape in theŚroda Wielkopolska Region. Sp. Form 2016, 26, 145-162. otwiera się w nowej karcie
  65. Nijhuis, S.; van Lammeren, R.; Antrop, M. Exploring the visual landscape. In Exploring the Visual Landscape. Advances in Physiognomic Landscape Research in The Netherlands.; Nijhuis, S., Van Lammeren, R., Van Der Hoeven, F.D., Eds.; IOS Press, Delft University of Technology: Delft, The Netherlands, 2011.
  66. Hernández, J.; García, L.; Ayuga, F. Assessment of the visual impact made on the landscape by new buildings: A methodology for site selection. Landsc. Urban Plan. 2004, 68, 15-28. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  67. Rodrigues, M.; Montañés, C.; Fueyo, N. A method for the assessment of the visual impact caused by the large-scale deployment of renewable-energy facilities. Environ. Impact Assess. Rev. 2010, 30, 240-246. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  68. Molina-Ruiz, J.; Martínez-Sánchez, M.J.; Pérez-Sirvent, C.; Tudela-Serrano, M.L.; García Lorenzo, M.L. Developing and applying a GIS-assisted approach to evaluate visual impact in wind farms. Renew. Energy 2011, 36, 1125-1132. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  69. Samavatekbatan, A.; Gholami, S.; Karimimoshaver, M. Assessing the visual impact of physical features of tall buildings: Height, top, color. Environ. Impact Assess. Rev. 2016, 57, 53-62. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  70. Hehl-Lange, S.; Lange, E. Virtual environments. In Research in Landscape Architecture Methods and Methodology; van den Brink, A., Bruns, E., Tobi, H., Bell, S., Eds.; Routledge Taylor & Francis Group: London, UK; New York, NY, USA, 2017; pp. 161-178. otwiera się w nowej karcie
  71. Ozimek, P.; Bohm, A.; Ozimek, A.; Wańkowicz, W. Planning for Space of High Landscape Values Using Digital Site Analysis and Economic Evaluation [in Polish]; otwiera się w nowej karcie
  72. Bishop, I.D. Assessment of Visual Qualities, Impacts, and Behaviours, in the Landscape, by Using Measures of Visibility. Environ. Plan. B Plan. Des. 2003, 30, 677-688. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  73. De Groot, R. Function-analysis and valuation as a tool to assess land use conflicts in planning for sustainable, multi-functional landscapes. Landsc. Urban Plan. 2006, 75, 175-186. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  74. Plexida, S.G.; Sfougaris, A.I.; Ispikoudis, I.P.; Papanastasis, V.P. Selecting landscape metrics as indicators of spatial heterogeneity-A comparison among Greek landscapes. Int. J. Appl. Earth Obs. Geoinf. 2014, 26, 26-35. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  75. Fan, C.; Myint, S. A comparison of spatial autocorrelation indices and landscape metrics in measuring urban landscape fragmentation. Landsc. Urban Plan. 2014, 121, 117-128. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  76. Apparicio, P.; Abdelmajid, M.; Riva, M.; Shearmur, R. Comparing alternative approaches to measuring the geographical accessibility of urban health services: Distance types and aggregation-error issues. Int. J. Health Geogr. 2008, 7, 7. [CrossRef] [PubMed] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  77. Fan, P.; Xu, L.; Yue, W.; Chen, J. Accessibility of public urban green space in an urban periphery: The case of Shanghai. Landsc. Urban Plan. 2017, 165, 177-192. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  78. Dramstad, W.E.; Tveit, M.S.; Fjellstad, W.J.; Fry, G.L.A. Relationships between visual landscape preferences and map-based indicators of landscape structure. Landsc. Urban Plan. 2006, 78, 465-474. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  79. Ode, Å.; Fry, G.; Tveit, M.S.; Messager, P.; Miller, D. Indicators of perceived naturalness as drivers of landscape preference. J. Environ. Manag. 2009, 90, 375-383. [CrossRef] [PubMed] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  80. Frank, S.; Fürst, C.; Koschke, L.; Witt, A.; Makeschin, F. Assessment of landscape aesthetics-Validation of a landscape metrics-based assessment by visual estimation of the scenic beauty. Ecol. Indic. 2013, 32, 222-231. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  81. Roos-Klein Lankhorst, J.; de Vries, S.; Buijs, A. Mapping landscape attractiveness-A GIS-based landscape appreciation model for the Durch countryside. In Exploring the Visual Landscape. Advances in Physiognomic Landscape Research in the Netherlands; Nijhuis, S., Van Lammeren, R., Van Der Hoeven, F.D., Eds.; IOS Press, Delft University of Technology: Delft, The Netherlands, 2011.
  82. Tveit, M.; Ode, Å.; Fry, G. Key concepts in a framework for analysing visual landscape character. Landsc. Res. 2006, 31, 229-255. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  83. Ode, Å.; Tveit, M.; Fry, G. Capturing landscape visual character using indicators: Touching base with landscape aesthetic theory. Landsc. Res. 2008, 33, 89-117. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  84. Jessel, B. Elements, characteristics and character-Information functions of landscapes in terms of indicators. Ecol. Indic. 2006, 6, 153-167. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  85. Ndubisi, F. Ecological planning: A Historical and Comparative Synthesis;
  86. Daniels, B.; Zaunbrecher, B.S.; Paas, B.; Ottermanns, R.; Ziefle, M.; Roß-Nickoll, M. Assessment of urban green space structures and their quality from a multidimensional perspective. Sci. Total Environ. 2018, 615, 1364-1378. [CrossRef] [PubMed] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  87. Raszeja, E.; Skóra, A. Preservation of river valleys in Wielkopolska in the landscape perception terms-The case of the valley of Samica Kierska river. Acta Sci. Pol. Form. Circumiectus 2019, 1, 53-65. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  88. Bundred, S. Review of Bristol 2015 European Green Capital Year. Report to Bristol City Council; otwiera się w nowej karcie
  89. Bristol Design, Bristol City Council: Bristol, UK, 2016.
  90. Tallon, A.R. Bristol. Cities 2007, 24, 74-88. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  91. Grant Associates Grant Associates-Bristol Harbourside. Available online: http://grant-associates.uk.com/ projects/bristol-harbourside-landscape-masterplan/ (accessed on 22 October 2017). otwiera się w nowej karcie
  92. Poznań Municipal Urban Planning Office. The Study on Conditions and Spatial Development Directions for Poznań [in Polish]; the President of the City of Poznań: Poznań, Poland, 2018. otwiera się w nowej karcie
  93. Parliament of the Republic of Poland. The Act on Spatial Planning [in Polish]; otwiera się w nowej karcie
  94. Parliament's of the Republic of Poland Office: Warsaw, Poland, 2003. otwiera się w nowej karcie
  95. Walz, U. Indicators to monitor the structural diversity of landscapes. Ecol. Modell. 2015, 295, 88-106. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  96. Gdańsk Development Office. The Study on Conditions and Spatial Development Directions for Gdańsk [in Polish]; otwiera się w nowej karcie
  97. Pomeranian Land Management Office. Spatial Development Plan for Metropolitan Area of Gdańsk, Gdynia and Sopot 2030 [in Polish];
  98. the Pomorskie Voivodeship Council: Gdańsk, Poland, 2017.
  99. Centre for Metropolitan Reseach UAM Poznań. The Concept for Spatial Development for Metropolitan Area of Poznań [in Polish];
  100. Kaczmarek, T., Mikuła, L., Eds.; Metropolitan Area of Poznań Association: Poznań, Poland, 2016.
  101. Kabisch, N.; Strohbach, M.; Haase, D.; Kronenberg, J. Urban green space availability in European cities. Ecol. Indic. 2016, 70, 586-596. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  102. Niedźwiecka-Filipiak, I.; Rubaszek, J.; Potyrała, J.; Filipiak, P. The Method of Planning Green Infrastructure System with the Use of Landscape-Functional Units (Method LaFU) and its Implementation in the Wrocław Functional Area (Poland). Sustainability 2019, 11, 394. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  103. Szulczewska, B.; Giedych, R.; Maksymiuk, G. Can we face the challenge: how to implement a theoretical concept of green infrastructure into planning practice? Warsaw case study. Landsc. Res. 2017, 42, 176-194. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  104. Biernacka, J.; Erbel, J.; Augustynowicz, S.; Duda, T.; Gawryszewska, B.; Jurkiewicz, P.; Krzekotowska, J.; Rajkiewicz, A. The Warsaw Housing Standard 1.2 (draft project) [in Polish];
  105. Parliament of the Republic of Poland. Act on amending certain other acts in connection with the reinforcement of the landscape protection instruments [in Polish]; otwiera się w nowej karcie
  106. Parliament's of the Republic of Poland Office: Warsaw, Poland, 2015. otwiera się w nowej karcie
  107. Natural England and Department for Environment Food & Rural Affairs Landscape and seascape character assessments. Available online: https://www.gov.uk/guidance/landscape-and-seascape-character- assessments (accessed on 7 November 2018). otwiera się w nowej karcie
  108. Department for Communities and Local Government. Planning Policy Guidance 17: Planning for Open Space, Sport and Recreation; Office of the Deputy Prime Minister (ODPM): London, UK, 2006. otwiera się w nowej karcie
  109. Tratalos, J.A.; Barbosa, O.; Fuller, R.A.; Davies, R.G.; Gaston, K.J.; Armsworth, P.R.; Johnson, P. Who benefits from access to green space? A case study from Sheffield, UK. Landsc. Urban Plan. 2007, 83, 187-195. 105. Department of Communities and Local Government. Plain English guide to the Planning System;
  110. Ministry of Housing, Communities & Local Government: London, UK, 2015. otwiera się w nowej karcie
  111. Ministry of Housing Communities & Local Government. Localism Act 2011; Parliament of the United Kingdom: London, UK, 2011. otwiera się w nowej karcie
  112. Bristol City Council. Bristol Central Area Plan; Bristol Design, Bristol City Council: Bristol, UK, 2014. otwiera się w nowej karcie
  113. Bristol City Council. Bristol Development Framework Core Strategy; Bristol Design, Bristol City Council: Bristol, UK, 2011. otwiera się w nowej karcie
  114. Bristol City Council. Bristol's Parks and Green Space Strategy; Visual Technology, Bristol City Council: Bristol, UK, 2008. otwiera się w nowej karcie
  115. Bristol Biodiversity Partnership. Bristol Biodiversity Action Plan-For People And Wildlife; otwiera się w nowej karcie
  116. King, S., Holland, H., Eds.; Bristol Biodiversity Partnership, Bristol Parks, Bristol City Council: Bristol, UK, 2008. otwiera się w nowej karcie
  117. Bristol City Council. European Green Capital Award 2015-Bristol UK Technical Bid. Section 3 Green Urban Areas Incorporating Sustainable Land Use; European Commission, European Green Capital: Bristol, UK, 2015.
  118. West of England Partnership; Natural England; Environment Agency; Forestry Commission. West of England Strategic Green Infrastructure Framework; West of England Green Infrastructure Group: Bristol, UK, 2011. otwiera się w nowej karcie
  119. Park, C.Y.; Lee, D.K.; Asawa, T.; Murakami, A.; Kim, H.G.; Lee, M.K.; Lee, H.S. Influence of urban form on the cooling effect of a small urban river. Landsc. Urban Plan. 2019, 183, 26-35. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  120. Cullinan Studio Bristol Harbourside Masterplan. Available online: http://cullinanstudio.com/project/bristol_ harbourside_masterplan (accessed on 22 October 2017).
  121. Nam, J.; Dempsey, N. Understanding Stakeholder Perceptions of Acceptability and Feasibility of Formal and Informal Planting in Sheffield's District Parks. Sustainability 2019, 11, 360. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  122. Tölle, A. Gdańsk. Cities 2008, 25, 107-119. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  123. Pierre, J. The politics of Urban Governance; Palgrave Macmillan: Basingstoke, UK, 2011.
  124. Van den Dool, L.; Hendriks, F.; Gianoli, A.; Schaap, L. The quest for Good Urban Governance: Theoretical Reflections and International Practices; Springer: Wiesbaden, Germany, 2015. otwiera się w nowej karcie
  125. Badach, J.; Dymnicka, M. Concept of 'Good Urban Governance' and Its Application in Sustainable Urban Planning. IOP Conf. Ser. Mater. Sci. Eng. 2017, 245, 082017. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  126. Beunen, R.; Opdam, P. When landscape planning becomes landscape governance, what happens to the science? Landsc. Urban Plan. 2011, 100, 324-326. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  127. Opdam, P.; Nassauer, J.I.; Wang, Z.; Albert, C.; Bentrup, G.; Castella, J.C.; McAlpine, C.; Liu, J.; Sheppard, S.; Swaffield, S. Science for action at the local landscape scale. Landsc. Ecol. 2013, 28, 1439-1445. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  128. Haase, D.; Frantzeskaki, N.; Elmqvist, T. Ecosystem Services in Urban Landscapes: Practical Applications and Governance Implications. Ambio 2014, 43, 407-412. [CrossRef] otwiera się w nowej karcie
  129. Southern, A.; Lovett, A.; O'Riordan, T.; Watkinson, A. Sustainable landscape governance: Lessons from a catchment based study in whole landscape design. Landsc. Urban Plan. 2011, 101, 179-189. [CrossRef] © 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). otwiera się w nowej karcie
Weryfikacja:
Politechnika Gdańska

wyświetlono 152 razy

Publikacje, które mogą cię zainteresować

Meta Tagi