Influence of the air phase on water flow in dikes
Numerical models are often used to describe flow and deformation processes occurring in dikes during flood events. Modeling of such phenomena is a challenging task, due to the complexity of the system, consisting of three material phases: soil skeleton, pore water and pore air. Additional difficulties are transient loading caused by variable in time water levels, heterogeneity of the soil or air trapping. This paper presents a brief review of the influence of the air phase in soil on water flow and pore pressure generation, with focus on applications related to stability of dikes, earth dams and similar structures. Numerical simulations are carried out to investigate the differences between the Richards equation and the two-phase flow model, using an in-house code based on the finite volume method. A variety of boundary problems are considered, including seepage through flood dikes, dike overtopping and water level fluctuations. Special attention is paid to the problem of air trapping, which occurs when water flows over the top of a dike. Such a phenomenon occurred during experiments on model dikes reported in the literature, ultimately leading to development of cracks and damages in dike structure.
Witold Tisler, Adam Szymkiewicz. (2017). Influence of the air phase on water flow in dikes, 17, 94-102. https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/20171700094
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