Solubilization of keratins and functional properties of their isolates and hydrolysates
The keratinous wastes of the textile industry and poultry slaughterhouses may be used as sources of soluble keratins or hydrolysates. This review presents methods for processing raw keratin-based materials into bioproducts with functional and bioactive properties suitable for biomedical, cosmetic, food, and agricultural applications. Soluble keratin can be obtained by thermal treatment in some organic solvents, reduction, or oxidation of the disulfide bonds. Recent studies have shown that keratins contain amino acid sequences with high biological activities such as antioxidant, angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory, dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitory, and antimicrobial. Peptides containing these sequences may find numerous applications as value-added products in the food industry. More research devoted to development of methods for conversion of animal by-products to novel products is needed. Further technological investigations to create large-scale production methods are also necessary.
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