The Specific Nature of Chemical Composition of Water from Volcanic Lakes Based on Bali Case Study
The research area was localized in the Indonesian Archipelago, at the latitude of eight and nine degrees S on the one of the Lesser Sunda group island provinces, Bali (563,3 km2). Two massive calderas (Mount Batur 1717 m above sea level.; Mount Sangiyang 2093 m above sea level) are one of the most prominent landforms in the chain of volcanic mountain ranges of the Bali Island. Lake Batur (17,18 km2) and Batur Spring (which are part of the freshwater lake system of Mt. Batur caldera) and also Danau Bratan Lake (one of the unconnected lakes next to the Mt. Sangiyang caldera), were selected for studies on the pollutants concentration levels in this volcanic area located in tropical climate. The research was aimed at determining the concentration of pollutants of natural (volcanic) and anthropogenic origin occurring in both lakes. The following parameters were determined: anions, metals, pH and conductivity. Based on the obtained dataset of initial studies it can be stated that the localization of aquatic ecosystems has the significant impact on the chemical composition of surface water.
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Żaneta Polkowska, Marek Ruman, Sara Lehmann-Konera, Magdalena Matysik, Damian Absalon. (2014). The Specific Nature of Chemical Composition of Water from Volcanic Lakes Based on Bali Case Study, 21-25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcbee.2014.10.008
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