Fast, sensitive and reliable multi-residue method for routine determination of 34 pesticides from various chemical groups in water samples by using dispersive liquid – liquid microextraction coupled with gas chromatography – mass spectrometry
A simple and efficient dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction technique (DLLME) was developed by using a mixture of two solvents: 40 μL of tetrachlorethylene (extraction solvent) and 1.0 mL of methanol (disperser solvent), which was rapidly injected with a syringe into 10mL ofwater sample. Some important parameters affecting the extraction efficiency, such as type and volume of solvents, water sample volume, extraction time, temperature, pH adjustment and salt addition effect were investigated. Simultaneous determination of 34 commonly used pesticides was performed by using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The procedure has been validated in order to obtain the highest efficiency at the lowest concentration levels of analytes to fulfill the requirements of regulations onmaximumresidue limits. Under the optimumconditions, the linearity range was within 0.0096–100 μg L−1. The limits of detection (LODs) of the developed DLLME-GC-MS methodology for all investigated pesticides were in the range of 0.0032 (endrin)–0.0174 (diazinon) μg L−1 and limits of quantification (LOQs) from 0.0096 to 0.052 μg L−1. At lower concentration of 1 μg L−1 for each pesticide, recoveries ranged between 84%(tebufenpyrad) and 108% (deltamethrin) with relative standard deviations (RSDs) (n = 7) from 1.1% (metconazole) to 11% (parathion-mehtyl). This methodology was successfully applied to check contamination of environmental samples. The procedure has proved to be selective, sensitive and precise for the simultaneous determination of various pesticides. The optimized analytical method is very simple and rapid (less than 5 min).
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