Katalog Publikacji

  1. 2018

  2. Atmospheric opacity estimation based on IWV derived from GNSS observations for VLBI applications

    G. Nykiel, P. Wolak, M. Figurski - GPS SOLUTIONS - 2018
    Thermal emission of atmospheric water vapor has a great influence on the calibration of radio astronomical observations at millimeter wavelengths. The phenomenon of an atmospheric water vapor emits noise signal and attenuates astronomical emission. At 22 GHz, integrated water vapor (IWV) obtained from global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) is strictly related to atmospheric opacity (τ0), which is a crucial parameter for data...
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  3. DBpedia and YAGO as Knowledge Base for Natural Language Based Question Answering—The Evaluation

    The idea of automatic question answering system has a very long history. Despite constant improvement of the systems asking questions in the natural language requires very complex solutions. In this paper the DBpedia and YAGO are evaluated as a knowledge bases for simple class 1 and 2 question answering system. For this purpose a question answering system was designed and implemented. The proposed solution and the knowledge bases...
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  4. Extended phase diagram of RNiC2 family: Linear scaling of the Peierls temperature

    Physical properties for the late-lanthanide-based RNiC2 (R = Dy, Ho, Er, and Tm) ternary compounds are reported. All the compounds show antiferromagnetic ground state with the Néel temperature ranging from 3.4 K for HoNiC2 to 8.5 K for ErNiC2. The results of the transport and galvanomagnetic properties confirm a charge density wave state at and above room temperature with transition temperatures TCDW = 284, 335, 366, and 394 K for...
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  5. Gender approaches to evolutionary multi-objective optimization using pre-selection of criteria

    A novel idea to perform evolutionary computations (ECs) for solving highly dimensional multi-objective optimization (MOO) problems is proposed. Following the general idea of evolution, it is proposed that information about gender is used to distinguish between various groups of objectives and identify the (aggregate) nature of optimality of individuals (solutions). This identification is drawn out of the fitness of individuals...
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  6. Morphology, Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Thermoplastic Polyurethane Containing Reduced Graphene Oxide and Graphene Nanoplatelets

    M. Strankowski, P. Korzeniewski, J. Strankowska, A. Anu, T. Sabu - Materials - 2018
    Polyurethane/graphene nanocomposites were synthesized using commercial thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU, Apilon 52DE55), and two types of graphene derivatives: graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO). Fourier Transformation Infrared Spectroscopy Fourier Transformation Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) spectroscopy, TEM, and SEM microscopy and XRD techniques were used to chemically and structurally characterize GNP...
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  7. Total domination in versus paired-domination in regular graphs

    A subset S of vertices of a graph G is a dominating set of G if every vertex not in S has a neighbor in S, while S is a total dominating set of G if every vertex has a neighbor in S. If S is a dominating set with the additional property that the subgraph induced by S contains a perfect matching, then S is a paired-dominating set. The domination number, denoted γ(G), is the minimum cardinality of a dominating set of G, while the...
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  8. 2017

  9. A compact smart sensor based on a neural classifier for objects modeled by Beaunier's model

    A new solution of a smart microcontroller sensor based on a simple direct sensor-microcontroller interface for technical objects modeled by two-terminal networks and by the Beaunier’s model of anticorrosion coating is proposed. The tested object is stimulated by a square pulse and its time voltage response is sampled four times by the internal ADC of microcontroller. A neural classifier based on measurement data classifies the...
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  10. A concept of heterogeneous numerical model of concrete for GPR simulations

    The Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) method, which is increasingly being used in the non-destructive diagnostics of reinforced concrete structures, often needs more accurate interpretation tools for analysis of experimental data. Recently, there has been growing interest in developing of various numerical models for exhaustive understanding of GPR data. This paper presents the concept of a heterogeneous numerical model of concrete,...
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  11. A DISCRETE-CONTINUOUS METHOD OF MECHANICAL SYSTEM MODELLING

    The paper describes a discrete-continuous method of dynamic system modelling. The presented approach is hybrid in its nature, as it combines the advantages of spatial discretization methods with those of continuous system modelling methods. In the proposed method, a three-dimensional system is discretised in two directions only, with the third direction remaining continuous. The thus obtained discrete-continuous model is described...
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  12. A fast procedure of stress state evaluation in magnetically anisotropic steels with the help of a probe with adjustable magnetizing field direction

    The paper presents a novel approach to the stress state evaluation issue. It deals with a strongly (magnetically) anisotropic materials for which a direct interpretation of the Barkhausen effect (BE) intensity would lead to erroneous results. In such a case one has to take into account both the measured BE intensity and the orientation of the magnetisation direction relative to the magnetic easy axis. For the in plane stress distribution...
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  13. A method of measuring RLC components for microcontroller systems

    A new method of measuring RLC components for microcontroller systems dedicated to compact smart impedance sensors based on a direct sensor-microcontroller interface is presented. In the method this direct interface composed of a reference resistor connected in series with the tested sensor impedance is stimulated by a square wave generated by the microcontroller, and then its voltage response is sampled by an internal ADC of the...
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  14. A navigation device utilizing body communication channel for mobile wearable systems

    A. Bujnowski, K. Osinski, J. Wtorek - 2017
    A novel touch sensor utilizing a body communication technology is presented in the paper. The proposed device accepts orders (gestures) only from a person wearing it. Moreover, when comparing it to a similar, however an optical one, it appears as a less power consumable. Preliminary results of its properties examination are presented and discussed. Additionally, the developed sensor allows to measure a human body the electrical...
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  15. A new approach to the stereoselective synthesis of trans-3-carbamoyl-b-lactam moieties†

    Z. Anna, N. Ewelina, S. Makowiec - NEW JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY - 2017
    One-pot synthesis of optically active 1,4-disubstituted-3-carbamoyl-azetidinones from 5-[(N-arylamino)- (hydroxyl)methylene]-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxa-4,6-diones and chiral aldimines is achieved via thermal generation of carbamoyl ketenes and subsequent [2+2] cycloaddition. Three possible chiral induction approaches were tested and (R)-(+)-1-phenylethylamine was confirmed as the best chiral auxiliary. Among the four possible diastereoisomers,...
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  16. A novel formulation of 3D spectral element for wave propagation in reinforced concrete

    The paper deals with numerical simulations of wave propagation in reinforced concrete for damage detection purposes. A novel formulation of a 3D spectral element was proposed. The reinforcement modelled as the truss spectral element was embedded in the 3D solid spectral finite element. Numerical simulations have been conducted on cuboid concrete specimens reinforced with two steel bars. Different degradation models were considered...
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  17. A novel sensor for measuring temperature profile during the thermoablation

    Abstract — A novel approach for monitoring a temperature distribution inside a tissue during thermoablation is presented in the paper. A thermal profile is measured using a set of serially connected thermistors each bypassed by a capacitor. This technique allows a two-wire and simultaneous multi- point measurements using a multi-frequency measurement of electrical impedance. It is...
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  18. A rapid-response ultrasensitive biosensor for influenza virus detection using antibody modified boron-doped diamond

    D. Nidzworski, S. Katarzyna, P. Niedziałkowski, R. Bogdanowicz, M. Sobaszek, J. Ryl, P. Weiher, M. Sawczak, E. Wnuk, W. Goddard Iii, A. Jaramillo-Botero, T. Ossowski - Scientific Reports - 2017
    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), almost 2 billion people each year are infected worldwide with flu-like pathogens including influenza. This is a contagious disease caused by viruses belonging to the family Orthomyxoviridae. Employee absenteeism caused by flu infection costs hundreds of millions of dollars every year. To successfully treat influenza virus infections, detection of the virus during the initial development...
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  19. A spatio-temporal approach to intersectoral labour and wage mobility

    The article presents the spatio-temporal approach for intersectoral labor and wage mobility. Analyses of interindustry mobility were performed with the use of general entropy mobility indices (GEMM). Spatio- temporal approach was obtained thanks to the separate measurement of spatial autocorrelation and regression for each set of sectoral wage and employment structure and was conducted in each year of the research period separately....
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  20. A Survey on Identifying and Addressing Business Analysis Problems

    Despite the growing body of knowledge on requirements engineering and business analysis, these areas of software project are still considered problematic. The paper focuses on problems reported by business analysts and on applicability of available business analysis techniques as solutions to such problems. A unified set of techniques was developed on the basis of 3 industrial standards associated with IIBA, REQB and IREB certification...
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  21. A Thermographic Measurement Approach to Assess Supercapacitor Electrical Performances

    This paper describes a proposal for the qualitative assessment of condition of supercapacitors based on the conducted thermographic measurements. The presented measurement stand was accompanied by the concept of methodology of performing tests. Necessary conditions, which were needed to minimize the influence of disturbing factors on the performance of thermal imaging measurements, were also indicated. Mentioned factors resulted...
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  22. A universal method for the identification of genes encoding amatoxins and phallotoxins in poisonous mushrooms

    ABSTRACT Background. As the currently known diagnostic DNA targets amplified in the PCR assays for detection of poisonous mushrooms have their counterparts in edible species, there is a need to design PCR primers specific to the genes encoding amanitins and phallotoxins, which occur only in poisonous mushrooms. Objective. The aim of the study was testing of PCR-based method for detection of all genes encoding hepatotoxic cyclic...
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  23. ABSORPCJA, METABOLIZM I ROLA BIOLOGICZNA KWASÓW NUKLEINOWYCH OBECNYCH W ŻYWNOŚCI

    Kwasy nukleinowe należą do niedocenianych składników żywności, szczególnie surowej lub nisko przetworzonej. W niniejszej publikacji skupiono się na omówieniu przemian, jakim podlegają kwasy nukleinowe w przewodzie pokarmowym człowieka, procesie absorpcji nukleotydów oraz nukleozydów z przewodu pokarmowego, a także przedstawiono podstawowe etapy ich metabolizmu w komórkach organizmu. Produkty trawienia kwasów nukleinowych stanowią...
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  24. Accuracy of a low-cost autonomous hexacopter platforms navigation module for a photogrammetric and environmental measurements

    A photogrammetry and environmental measurements from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) are a low-cost alternative for a traditional aerial photogrammetry. A commercial off-the-shelf products (COTS) offers a variety of cheap components that a suitable to be used on board a UAV. In this paper a low-cost navigation module based on Ublox NEO-M8N GPS and Pixhawk flight controller have been described, as a main extrinsic parameters source...
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  25. Activating Public Space: How to Promote Physical Activity in Urban Environment

    Physical activity is an essential component of a healthy lifestyle. The quality and equipment of urban public space plays an important role in promoting physical activity among people (residents, tourists). In order for recreation and sports activities to be undertaken willingly, in a safe and comprehensive manner, certain spatial conditions and requirements must be met. The distinctive feature of contemporary large cities is the...
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  26. ADAPTATION OF THE ACTIVATED SLUDGE TO THE DIGESTATE LIQUORS DURING THE NITRIFICATION AND DENITRIFICATION PROCESSES

    The activated sludge process of the digestate liquors after chemical separation was conducted using a 10 L lab-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and a 0.50 m3 pilotscale SBR independently (with pH control). Due to the relatively high concentration of free ammonia (FA), clear inhibitory effects of the digestate liquors on the nitrifying bacteria were observed. The adaptation of the activated sludge to the toxicity was evaluated...
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  27. Agile Commerce in the light of Text Mining

    The survey conducted for this study reveals that more than 84% of respondents have never encountered the term “agile commerce” and do not understand its meaning. At the same time, they are active participants of this strategy. Using digital channels as customers more often than ever before, they have already been included in the agile philosophy. Based on the above, the purpose of the study is to analyse major text sets containing...
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  28. Alternative Methods of Preparation of Soluble Keratin from Chicken Feathers

    Huge amount of keratinous waste, especially birds’ feathers, demands more value-added application instead of dumping. The present work reports the results of experiments aimed at preparing soluble keratin useful for novel bioproduct formation. The effect of thermo-chemical treatments with various reducing agents, i.e. 2-mercaptoethanol, dithiothreitol, sodium m-bisulphite, and sodium bisulphite, as well as sodium hydroxide, on...
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  29. Amigdalina - lek przeciwnowotworowy czy trucizna?

    Choroby nowotworowe, w wyniku których umiera rocznie średnio 96 tys. Polaków stanowią drugą najważniejszą przyczynę zgonów w Polsce. W walce z rakiem, oprócz tradycyjnych metod leczenia, równie ważna jest profilaktyka, która polega na upowszechnianiu wiedzy na temat czynników ryzyka nowotworów, wyeliminowania palenia papierosów i przestrzegania właściwej diety. Coraz większe zainteresowanie w walce z chorobami nowotworowymi wzbudza...
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  30. An audio-visual corpus for multimodal automatic speech recognition

    review of available audio-visual speech corpora and a description of a new multimodal corpus of English speech recordings is provided. The new corpus containing 31 hours of recordings was created specifically to assist audio-visual speech recognition systems (AVSR) development. The database related to the corpus includes high-resolution, high-framerate stereoscopic video streams from RGB cameras, depth imaging stream utilizing Time-of-Flight...
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  31. An IoT-Based Computational Framework for Healthcare Monitoring in Mobile Environments

    H. Mora, D. Gil, R. Munoz Terol, J. Azorin-Lopez, J. Szymański - SENSORS - 2017
    The new Internet of Things paradigm allows for small devices with sensing, processing and communication capabilities to be designed, which enable the development of sensors, embedded devices and other ‘things’ ready to understand the environment. In this paper, a distributed framework based on the internet of things paradigm is proposed for monitoring human biomedical signals in activities involving physical exertion. The main...
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  32. Analiza porównawcza struktury zalążka u Sedum hispanicum L. i Sedum acre L.

    K. Jagiełło, K. Serbakowska, M. Polonis - 2017
    Zalążki Sedum hispanicum i S. acre ze względu na budowę klasyfikuje się jako anatropowe. Rozwój zarodka przebiega według typu Caryophyllad - po podziale zygoty powstają dwie komórki, komórka bazalna, która nie ulega podziałom oraz komórka apikalna, z której powstaje cały zarodek właściwy i chalazalne komórki suspensora. Przez cały okres rozwoju zalążka odżywianie zarodka przechodzi od stadium pobierania substancji odżywczych za...
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  33. Analiza ruchowa pojazdów szynowych z uwzględnieniem zmian napięcia na odbieraku prądu

    W artykule zaproponowano metodykę wykonywania analizy ruchowej pojazdów szynowych, która uwzględnia wpływ zmieniającego się napięcia zasilającego pojazd a jego właściwości ruchowe. Wykorzystując model opracowany w programie Simulink wskazano na istotne różnice w czasie przejazdu oraz w wartościach napięcia zasilającego pomiędzy proponowanym sposobem analizy a powszechnie stosowanym podejściem uproszczonym.
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  34. Analysis of economical lighting of highways in the environment of SMOL language

    The paper puts forward and implements a method of designing and creating a modelling simulation environment for eztensive and complete analysis of economical lighting on highways. From a general design viewpoint, the proposed solution explores the concept of a network description language (SMOL), which has been designed to describe the necessary network functions, mechanisms, and devices; for the purpose of their computer simulation...
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  35. Analysis of the Impact of Galileo Observations on the Tropospheric Delays Estimation

    Z. Baldysz, M. Szolucha, G. Nykiel, M. Figurski - 2017
    In this study we present analysis of the impact of Galileo observations on the ZTD and tropospheric gradients estimation. The tropospheric parameters were obtained in various scenarios, which differ from each other only in used satellite systems: Galileo-only, GPS-only, GPS/Galileo, GPS/GLONASS and GPS/GLONASS/Galileo. Then, comparative analysis between Galileo-only solution and the other ones, was carried out. As a reference,...
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  36. Analysis of volatile fraction selected hybrid fruits using chromatographic techniques

    At present, "healthy eating" is gaining in popularity. Many people associate this term with eating plenty of vegetables and fruits. The basic elements influencing the selection of fruit are their appearance and smell. Of course, their origin and impact on human health are also very important. In recent years, exotic fruits have become increasingly accessible, making them gaining popularity, even among Poles. You can also meet plants...
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  37. Analytical Expression for the Time-Domain Green's Function of a Discrete Plane Wave Propagating in the 3-D FDTD Grid

    In this paper, a closed-form expression for the time-domain dyadic Green’s function of a discrete plane wave (DPW) propagating in a 3-D finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) grid is derived. In order to verify our findings, the time-domain implementation of the DPW-injection technique is developed with the use of the derived expression for 3-D total-field/scattered-field (TFSF) FDTD simulations. This implementation requires computations...
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  38. Analytical studies on ascosin, candicidin and levorin multicomponent antifungal antibiotic complexes. The stereostructure of ascosin A2

    In the class of polyene macrolides, there is a subgroup of aromatic heptaenes, which exhibit the highest antifungal activity within this type of antibiotics. Yet, due to their complex nature, aromatic heptaenes were not extensively studied and their potential as drugs is currently underexploited. Moreover, there are many inconsistencies in the literature regarding the composition and the structures of the individual components...
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  39. Anomalous Behavior of Hyaluronan Crosslinking Due to the Presence of Excess Phospholipids in the Articular Cartilage System of Osteoarthritis

    P. Bełdowski, P. Weber, T. Andrysiak, W. Auge, D. Ledziński, T. Deleon, A. Gadomski - INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES - 2017
    Lubrication of articular cartilage is a complex multiscale phenomenon in synovial joint organ systems. In these systems, synovial fluid properties result from synergistic interactions between a variety of molecular constituent. Two molecular classes in particular are of importance in understanding lubrication mechanisms: hyaluronic acid and phospholipids. The purpose of this study is to evaluate interactions between hyaluronic acid...
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  40. Antecedents and Consequences of Brand Loyalty

    S. Gupta, B. Schivinski, M. Brzozowska-Woś - Handel Wewnętrzny - 2017
    The objective of this paper is to review, systematize, and summarize empirical research on the antecedents and consequences of brand loyalty. The literature review has identified five categories of antecedents to brand loyalty associated with consumer, brand, social, corporate and relational factors. The type of loyalty formed varies according to the combination of various antecedents, with premium loyalty being considered the...
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  41. Antropoidalny Model Inteligentnego Systemu Decyzyjnego dla Jednostek Autonomicznych

    M. Czubenko - 2017
    Głównym celem pracy jest opracowanie modelu procesów psychologicznych -- od momentu otrzymania bodźca do momentu podjęcia adekwatnej reakcji -- zachodzących w mózgu człowieka (psychologia poznawcza), oraz teorii motywacji (potrzeb, popędów i emocji). Model, zaprezentowany w pracy nazwany Inteligentnym Systemem Decyzyjnym (ISD), może mieć zastosowanie w systemie sterowania jednostką autonomiczną (agentem). W rozprawie rozważa się...
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  42. Application of BN in Risk Diagnostics Arising from the Degree of Urban Regeneration Area Degradation

    Urban regeneration as a complex project, generates many extremely specific threats affecting the increase of investment risk. Its unique nature causes that probability parameter, normally applied in the process of risk quantification, is extremely difficult to estimate. Due to lack of historical data urban regeneration related activities are therefore associated with uncertainty. According to the authors, a useful tool for resolving...
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  43. Application of the Fractional Fourier Transform for dispersion compensation in signals from a fiber-based Fabry-Perot interferometer

    Optical methods of measurement do not require contact of a probe and the object under study, and thus have found use in a broad range of applications such as nondestructive testing (NDT), where noninvasive measurement is crucial. Measuring the refractive index of a material can give a valuable insight into its composition. Low‑coherence radiation sources enable measurement of the sample’s properties across a wide spectrum, while...
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  44. Application of the laser diode with central wavelength 975 nm for the therapy of neurofibroma and hemangiomas

    S. Jacek, S. Mirosław, C. Witold, K. Karpienko, M. Jędrzejewska-Szczerska, A. Cenian - JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL OPTICS - 2017
    This paper presents newly developed dermatological laser (with central wavelength 975 nm) for application in therapies requiring deep penetration of tissue, e.g. cutaneous (dermal) neurofibroma (Recklinghausen disease) and hemangiomas. This laser can work either in pulse or continues wave mode. Laser radiation is transmitted toward the application region by optical fiber with a diameter of 0.6 mm. The compact design of the laser...
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  45. Approach Manoeuvre During Emergency Ship-to-Ship Transfer Operation with Oil Spill

    One of the major activities during Ship to Ship (STS) transfer operation at sea is to safe approach the Ship to be Lightered (SBL) which moves on a constant heading with slow speed or drifting. In the paper described the manoeuvring problem for approaching during emergency STS transfer operation with oil spill. The approach manoeuvre is considered as a sequence of navigation manoeuvres in specific navigational environment with...
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  46. ASPEKTY BEZPIECZEŃSTWA W PROJEKTOWANIU I BUDOWIE INFRASTRUKTURY TRAMWAJOWEJ

    W artykule omówiono podstawowe problemy szeroko rozumianej infrastruktury tramwajowej, które wpływają na poziom bezpieczeństwa. Wskazano kierunki i przykłady działań w zakresie poprawy bezpieczeństwa w ruchu tramwajowym. Za konieczne uznano projektowanie i ciągły rozwój rozwiązań infrastrukturalnych w sposób uwzględniający wymogi bezpieczeństwa ruchu drogowego.
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  47. Assembly of 1D Granular Structures from Sulfonated Polystyrene Microparticles

    A. Mikkelsen, A. Kertmen, K. Khobaib, M. Rajnak, K. Juraj, Z. Rozynek - Materials - 2017
    Being able to systematically modify the electric properties of nano- and microparticles opens up new possibilities for the bottom-up fabrication of advanced materials such as the fabrication of one-dimensional (1D) colloidal and granular materials. Fabricating 1D structures from individual particles offers plenty of applications ranging from electronic sensors and photovoltaics to artificial flagella for hydrodynamic propulsion....
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  48. Assessment of Lipophilicity Indices Derived from Retention Behavior of Antioxidant Compounds in RP-HPLC

    Reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatography was employed in order to evaluate the lipophilicity of antioxidant compounds from different classes, such as phenolic acids, flavanones, flavanols, flavones, anthocyanins, stilbenes, xantonoids, and proanthocyanidins. The retention time of each compound was measured using five different HPLC columns: RP18 (LiChroCART, Purosphere RP-18e), C8 (Zorbax, Eclipse XDBC8), C16-Amide (Discovery...
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  49. Automatic recognition of therapy progress among children with autism

    A. Kołakowska, A. Landowska, A. Anzulewicz, K. Sobota - Scientific Reports - 2017
    The article presents a research study on recognizing therapy progress among children with autism spectrum disorder. The progress is recognized on the basis of behavioural data gathered via five specially designed tablet games. Over 180 distinct parameters are calculated on the basis of raw data delivered via the game flow and tablet sensors - i.e. touch screen, accelerometer and gyroscope. The results obtained confirm the possibility...
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  50. Badania bioaktywności modyfikowanego cementu kostnego – przegląd literaturowy

    Celem pracy jest przybliżenie aspektów związanych z modyfikowaniem cementu kostnego w celu nadania mu właściwości bioaktywnych. Przedstawiono obecnie stosowane bioaktywne modyfikacje, które mają charakter profilaktyczny (zapobiegają infekcjom), terapeutyczny (zwalczają bakterie) oraz pobudzający osteointegrację. Ukazano metody oceny modyfikacji bioaktywnych i zreferowano ich procedury, m.in. badania mikroskopowe, starzenie w roztworze...
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  51. Badania eksperymentalne intensyfikacji wymiany ciepła wymiennika U-rurowego z wykorzystaniem turbulizatora helikoidalnego

    W niniejszej pracy zostały zaprezentowane możliwości intensyfikacji wymiany ciepła po stronie płaszcza wymiennika U-rurowego. Badania eksperymentalne zostały przeprowadzone zarówno dla wymienników referencyjnych tj. prosty – rura w rurze, U-rurowy bez turbulizacji jak i wymiennika z turbulizatorem helikoidalnym. Dla konstrukcji rura w rurze w celu uzyskania wartości referencyjnych przeprowadzono pomiary w układzie woda-woda oraz...
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  52. Badania eksperymentalne słupów CFST z betonem zwykłym i ekspansywnym

    Praca przedstawia badania eksperymentalne ponad 40 słupów CFST. Analizie poddano wyniki siły niszczącej słupy w aspekcie grubości stalowego płaszcza, smukłości słupa, rodzaju betonu wypełniającego stalową rurę (zwykły i ekspansywny) i jego wytrzymałości a także sposobu obciążania słupa (przez rdzeń lub przez cały przekrój). Sprawdzono efektywność słupów CFST z użyciem betonu ekspansywnego i zwykłego rozumianą jako stosunek nośności...
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